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The history of Courelli spans across Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the modern era. Since antiquity, ancient Atlians, Conselians, Lorenians, and others have inhabited the Atlian peninsula. Over the centuries, Atlians began to unify the peninsula, often at the expense of other societies. This unified Atlian Kingdom began to exert significant influence in western Erede and the surrounding seas for many centuries, making immeasurable contributions to humanity, notably in the fields of philosophy, science, and art.
After the decline and eventual fall of the Atlia in 719 CE, the peninsula was reorganized into the Empire of Milonia. Despite seeing famous personalities from its territory rise to prominence, the Kingdom itself remained politically divided. The central Milonian territories, including Falceri and Leoncavallo, remained under the authority of the Crown, while the southwestern territories, such as modern-day Giordano province, remained largely decentralized. At the same time, the coastal cities rose to great prosperity through shipping, commerce, and banking, and Milonian explorers discovered new seafaring routes, helping to usher in the an age of global trade and lay the foundations for capitalism and colonialism.
In the mid-17th century CE, republican revolutionaries defeated the King's forces in the War of Democratic Liberation, and established a republic. The new Republic of Courelli, established in 1663, quickly modernized and built a colonial empire, controlling swaths of land on various continents. The Republic maintained this empire for several centuries, until its collapse in the early 20th century.
In the mid-20th century CE, Courelli solidified its role as a global power after a wartime victory with the Socialist-Liberal United Front against Fascism in the 1950s fascist civil war in the nearby nation of Hirematia. Shortly thereafter, Courelli served as a founding member of the Social Liberal Union, an international organization devoted to combatting fascism and maintaining global peace. To this day, Courelli remains a strong economic, cultural, military and political factor in the 21st century.
Prehistory (c. 1,000,000 – c. 850 BCE)
|c. 1,000,000 BCE – c. 850 BCE|
|Followed by||Ancient history|
The prehistory of Courelli began in the Paleolithic period, when humans settled the Atlian peninsula for the first time, and ended in the Iron Age, when the first written records appeared. In this time, several species of humans intermittently occupied the Atlian peninsula. The earliest evidence of human occupation in around 850,000 BCE is in northwestern Casella, near the Great Lake, fossilized footprints likely made by an early human species. Fossils of very early Neanderthals, dating to around 200,000 BCE, have been found outside of Magnani. By 50,000 BCE they had become extinct, and modern humans had reached the peninsula.
No written language of the pre-Atlian inhabitants of the peninsula is known; therefore, the history, culture and way of life of pre-Atlian societies are known mainly through archaeological finds. Archaeological evidence demonstrates that ancient inhabitants of the peninsula were involved in extensive maritime trade and cultural links with the rest of Erede from the Neolithic onwards, especially by exporting wheat that was in abundant supply.
Early Stone Age (c. 1,000,000 – c. 9,000 BCE)
The Paleolithic, also called the Early Stone Age, is the period in Courellian prehistory characterized by the earliest known occupation of the Atlian peninsula by humans, and by the original development and use of stone tools. It extends from the earliest arrival of humans in the Atlian peninsula in c. 850,000 BCE to the development of agriculture in 9,000 BCE.
During the Paleolithic, the Atlian peninsula was rather different from how it is now. This huge period saw many changes in the environment, encompassing several glacial and interglacial episodes greatly affecting human settlement in the region. During glaciations, for example, the sea level was significantly lower, and St. Mégara's Isles were connected to the mainland. The Lorenian Sea began near modern-day Bassano, and what is now its surface up to Magnani was a fertile plain with a humid climate.
Archaeologists believe that the first humans arrived in roughly 850,000 BCE, near Casella's Great Lake. There is evidence from bones and flint tools found in lakeside deposits that a species of human was present in what is now Courelli at least 844,000 years ago. Early humans grouped together in small societies and subsisted by gathering plants, fishing, and hunting wild animals.
Humankind gradually evolved from early members of the genus Homo — such as Homo habilis and Homo neanderthalensis — into anatomically modern humans by 48,000 BCE. By c. 26,000 BCE, humans began to produce the earliest works of art and to engage in religious or spiritual behavior such as burial and ritual. The first distinct culture of the Paleolithic were the Tritians, who produced more refined flint tools, but also made use of bone, antler, shell, amber, animal teeth, and ivory. These were fashioned into tools, and for the first time in the archaeological record, decorative jewelry and other ornaments. By 15,000 BCE, the various Paleolithic societies of the peninsula had formed an extensive, although rudimentary, trade network.
At this time, temperatures were cooler than the present day, and woodlands spread rapidly throughout the Atlian peninsula. However, around 11,000 BCE, as Miyana moved out of this last glacial age and temperatures rose, the Lorenian Sea assumed its modern coastline and St. Mégara's Isles were, at long last, separated from the peninsular mainland. The warmer climate changed the temperate environment of Paleolithic Courelli into a warm, forested, humid climate in the north and west, and a hot, dry climate to in the south.
This new climate was less conducive to the large herds of deer and wild horse that had previously sustained humans. Those animals were replaced in people's diets by pig, goats, wild boar, and cattle, which required different hunting techniques. By 7,500 BCE, tools had changed to incorporate barbs which could snag the flesh of an animal, making it harder for it to escape alive, and the dog had been domesticated to assist with hunting. Furthermore, the vast peninsular coastlines were a rich source of fish and game. However, though the late Paleolithic environment was bounteous, the rising population, and humans' success in exploiting their surroundings, eventually led to local exhaustion of many natural resources.
Late Stone Age (c. 9,000 – c. 5,500 BCE)
The Neolithic, also called the Late Stone Age, is a period in Courellian prehistory distinguished by the development of agriculture and the formation of fixed human settlements on the Atlian peninsula. It extends from c. 9,000 BCE, when migration from the east brought new knowledge of agriculture, to c. 5,500 BCE, when metallurgy began to be used widely.
The Neolithic Revolution, as it is called, introduced a more settled way of life, and ultimately led to societies becoming divided into differing groups of farmers, artisans, and leaders. Forest clearances were undertaken to provide room for cereal cultivation and animal herds. Native cattle and pigs were reared, as were a variety of grains, and salt was being produced by evaporation of seawater, enabling more effective preservation of meat.
More-refined tools, such as arrowheads and round-based pottery, are common indicators of the period. Different pottery types, such as grooved ware, begin to appear. Industrial flint mining begins, along with evidence of long-distance trade. Wooden tools and bowls were common, and bows were also constructed.
Bronze Age (c. 5,500 – c. 2,500 BCE)
The Bronze Age was a period of Courellian prehistory which lasted roughly from c. 5,500 BCE to 2,500 BCE. Notably, Bronze Age societies show the first historical evidence of significant economic stratification, and were likely the first societies on the Atlian peninsula to speak Proto-Eredean languages.
Early signs of complex human societies coincide with the appearance of the characteristic TBA society. Though the TBAs were one of several active societies at the time, they remained isolated in their early history. TBA pottery first appears in the archaeological record around 6,500 BCE, along with flat axes and burial of the dead. TBA innovation and techniques brought to the Atlian peninsula the skill of refining metal. In the late Neolithic, humans largely made items from stone or copper, but, beginning in c. 6,000 BCE, TBA smiths had discovered how to smelt bronze, which is much stronger than copper, by mixing copper with a small amount of tin. Over the coming centuries years, bronze gradually replaced stone as the main material for toolmaking, marking the dawn of the Bronze Age.
The economy of this age was no longer that of peasant communities and tribes: some materials began to be produced in specific locations and distributed to wide regions. Mining of metal and stone was particularly developed in some areas, along with the processing of those materials into valuable goods. Furthermore, the Bronze Age seemingly saw a shift in certain social phenomena as human societies grew and centralization increased. This is evidenced by the creation of large tombs and burial mounds, suggesting the rise of powerful elites. As time went on, settlements became permanent and intensive, paving the way for the development of more complex social structures.
Iron Age (c. 2,500 – c. 850 BCE)
The Iron Age began around 2,500 BCE. The archaeological record suggests this was not accompanied by any substantial population or demographic change. Evidence of life in this time suggests the development of the early forerunners of the later First Kingdom. On the whole, burials largely disappeared across Atlia, with the dead disposed of in a way which is archaeologically invisible. Cremation is widely cited as the most likely scenario, evidenced most famously by a structure known only as the Altar, a man-made structure thought to be a proto-crematorium. Atlian society shifted its focus towards family and community during this time, evidenced by the rise in prevalence of medium to large residential structures called hillforts.
Hillforts were known since the Late Bronze Age, but a huge number were constructed in the period 2700–2500 BCE, particularly in the North. After about 800 BCE, construction of new hillforts largely ceased. A large number cease to be regularly inhabited, while others become heavily occupied, suggesting a degree of regional centralization. Later writings suggest that this was a time of warring tribes, spread across the Atlian peninsula and centered upon their proto-cities. Ceramic figures of horsemen with bows or spears are common, as are great numbers of arrow and spear heads.
Classical history (c. 250 BCE – c. 500 CE)
The Kingdom of Atlia
Atlian civilization finds its roots in the numerous settlements established on the fertile coast of the Great Bay in the peninsular southeast. In the mid 200s BCE, the most notable of these settlements was Leoncavallo, a wealthy trade-based settlement ruled by powerful oligarchs and elders. WIP
In 238 BCE, Nencio began gathering together nearby settlements under his banner, promising territorial expansion and plundered loot in exchange for military support. He began his campaigns near the mouth of the Great River, near modern-day Peri, and marched west to Leoncavallo, where he and his allies conquered his brother's hillfort. Following his brother's death, Nencio's coalition turned west and raided villages along the coast until they reached Aleotti, where they faced the army of Fiori the Bald in 234 BCE. Utilizing the hilly landscape and morning fog to hide their numbers, Nencio's army routed the army of Fiori. With this victory, Nencio declared the formation of the Kingdom of Atlia and declared himself King.
Over the next several years, the territory was consolidated, and King Nencio launched series of reforms to develop his Kingdom and strengthen his control. While former conquerors attempted to enforce their rule over other settlements while leaving them mostly intact, Nencio was systematic in his approach towards the dissolution of conquered settlements. He would take women of conquered settlements, between the ages of 16 and 30, and spread them out within the kingdom as victory-wives. Children under 16 were taken from their mothers and given to Atlian families to be raised. He also implemented a shift towards meritocracy, both in the military and the civil service he was developing. Nencio unified language spoken in his lands, and codified the written Atlian language. He ensured that his commanders, advisors, and other prominent members of his court could read and write, and formulated a system of advancement within his military, as opposed to inherited ranks.
By the time of King Nencio's death in 228 BCE, the border of the Atlian Kingdom had been extended to Black Hill. Nencio's son, Bartolo, was declared King Bartolo I, marking the first hereditary transfer of power in the kingdom's history. With peace restored domestically, Bartolo continued his father's peaceful reforms. By 206 BCE, Bartolo had established a kingdom-wide network of trade routes, which allowed specialized goods, currency, and – perhaps most importantly – information. Written records at this time are focused on accurate genealogies and death records, suggesting a cultural focus on birthrights. Legal structures for succession law begin appearing around this time, further lending credence to this theory.
The Kingdom of Nicostia
- 208 BCE: Kingdom of Nicostia founded
In 192 BCE, King Bartolo of the Atlia traveled to the nearby Kingdom of Conselia for urgent trade negotiations regarding the price of imported fabrics, to which the King's wife had taken a liking. During this visit, the King fell ill with a great sickness, which historians believe was dysentery. The King's traveling party made great haste to return to Leoncavallo, but he died of dehydration during the journey. Word of Bartolo's death was sent to Leoncavallo, and his son, Federigo, was proclaimed King Federigo I.
The Kingdom of Sabinia
- 176 BCE: Kingdom of Sabinia founded
Rise of Dalinism
Around 150 BCE, a religion known as Dalinism began to gain support in the peninsular southeast. While the exact dates of the life of the religion's prophet, Dalin, are unknown, he is believed to have resided near present-day Aleotti in the early 200s BCE. Folk religions would continue to oppose Dalinism for centuries following, forming the center of some of the greatest conflicts of early Courellian history.
The Kingdom of Pioria
- 149 BCE: Kingdom of Pioria founded
The Holy Kingdom of Trevisia
- 131 BCE: Holy Kingdom of Trevisia founded
The Iadanian League
In the next two decades, there would be two Atlian invasions of surrounding territories, mainly focused on conquest of various city-states in what are now the Courellian province of Bassano to the north and Maginardo to the west. During the first invasion, several cities and large swaths of surrounding land were added to the Kingdom of Atlia, and the now-ruined city of Gallonia was destroyed. However, the invasion ended in 122 BCE with a decisive Atlian defeat at the Battle of Tessevalia. During this battle, King TBA of Atlia died, and responsibility for the war passed to his son TBA. TBA then personally led a second Atlian invasion in 117 BCE. The following year, 116 BCE, the aggrieved city-states to the north assembled a coalition army, perhaps the largest army yet seen on the Atlian peninsula, and defeated the Atlian invasion force at the Battle of Iadania, ending the invasion and the threat to their territories.
After Iadania, the city-states greatly feared the possibility of another invasion, and many felt that establishing a long-term defense coalition for the city-states would help deter invasion. Iovinianus, the Gallonian commander at Tessevalia, had furiously rejected this; the city-states did not come to his city's aid when the Atlians were besieging its walls. In 114 BCE, however, a congress was called on the battlefield in Iadania to cement this new alliance, named the Iadanian League, which would be headquartered in the city to commemorate the final defeat of the Atlians and to symbolically show the League's commitment to ending all threats to the coalition's territory.
The Confederacy of Eboria
- 107 BCE: Confederacy of Eboria founded
The Kingdom of Casentia
- 99 BCE: Kingdom of Casentia founded
The Kingdom of Conselia
- 86 BCE: Kingdom of Conselia founded
The Udinesian Confederacy
The Udinesian Confederacy was formed in 81 BCE by the city-states of Metiada, Ederini, and Lirosa. The Udinesian Confederacy grew quickly to include all major settlements on or around the Udine Mountains, for which it was named. The key moment for the Confederacy's transformation into a regional power came in 76 BCE, when Polrisa, which controlled the important Port of Bastoia, joined in 76 BCE. Eburius of Polrisa, then only twenty years old, rapidly became a leading politician of the Confederacy. In the 32 years between 76 BCE and his death in 44 BCE, Eburius would hold the office of General a total of 18 times.
At this time, the eastern Atlian peninsula was increasingly dominated by the Kingdom of Atlia, which was expanding rapidly. In other cities of the peninsula, namely Cartenia, Vaerano, and Marensia, King TBA of Atlia had installed friendly rulers who were perceived as tyrants by the Udinesians. Eburius of Polrisa, whose father had been killed by one, called for the liberation of these cities and secured financial support for the Confederation from the Iadanian League, a sworn enemy of the Atlians. He then used the money to challenge the Atlian hold on these cities.
Eburius' greatest success came when he captured the fortress city of Anaria in 71 BCE in a daring night attack. This effectively blocked Atlian passage through the Udine Mountains, restricting the movement of troops and goods from Sabinia and Trevisia. In light of this success, a number of communities, including Peonia and Varugia, joined the Udinesian Confederacy, and the Iadanian Leagueincreased their support for the Udinesians. King TBA of Atlia finally made peace with the Udinesian Confederacy in 69 BCE, ceding the cities liberated by the Udinesians.
The increased size of the Udinesian Confederacy meant a bigger citizen army and more wealth, which led to hostility from neighboring states, especially the Holy Kingdom of Trevisia, which perceived the Udinesians – with whom they shared a significant border – as a threat. In 59 BCE, the Udinesian Confederacy entered into a war against the Holy Kingdom of Trevisia, which was called the Udinesi-Trevisian War. King Audramnus of Sabinia sided with the Udinesians and called for a conference in Anaria, where the Trevisian aggression was condemned. Shortly thereafter, however, the Udinesian Confederacy joined the Kingdom of Atlia in the Second Atli-Trevisian War (57-53 BCE). Under the leadership of Biliureto the Wise, the Udinesian Confederacy was able to finally defeat a heavily-weakened Trevisia and assert its control over the Udine Mountains.
The Kingdom of Baresia
- 61 BCE: Kingdom of Baresia founded
The Queendom of Noria
- 54 BCE: Queendom of Noria founded
Expansion of the Kingdom of Atlia
- 31 BCE: Kingdom of Atlia expands
The next century of Ancient Courellian history was marked by increasing regional centralization and rapid overhauls in technology and science. However, Atlia's progress was doomed to stall in 24 BCE, as traders from modern-day Lawattsia, an island off the southern coast of the Atlian peninsula, brought with them the Red Fever, a plague – now believed to be Typhoid fever – to which the Atlians had no resistance. The ensuing spread of pestilence caused a rapid collapse of agriculture and trade, as more and more people moved into the countryside and limited travel to avoid the plague.
For the next four years, Red Fever continued to devastate Atlian society, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths a year. Aptus Corrado of Aleotti, a church historian who chronicled much of what modern historians know about this period of Atlian history, wrote of the plague:
- "In the waning years of Agostino's reign, there broke out a dreadful plague, and excessive destruction of disease invaded every house, carrying off day by day numberless people. As all were fleeing the pestilence, there lay over the whole city, no longer bodies, but the carcasses of a great many dead, and, with harrowing consideration of a fate which in turn could be theirs, demanded the pity of all who bore witness."
In 22 BCE, the plague struck at the heart of the Kingdom, with King Agostino I falling victim to the disease. It is said that the King suffered greatly in his final hours, profusely defecating and vomiting, only interrupted by desperate cries to his medical staff for any medicine to ease his pain. Soon thereafter, his eldest daughter was proclaimed Queen Sofia I.
Expansion of the Kingdom of Nicostia
Demise of the Iadanian League
When King Lucius II of Atlia turned his attention to the Iadanian League, it had been on the Atlian agenda since before the days of TBA, when the Atlian army had been beaten at the Battle of Iadania. To increase the glory of his reign and rectify a historical defeat perceived as humiliating, Lucius II resolved on the conquest of the Iadanian League, the capture of the League Treasury in Iadania, and the acquisition of access to the Lorenian Sea in the north.
In 9 CE, the Atlian troops sent by Lucius II were defeated and the commander, Amulius Geminianus, was captured and executed by the League on the personal orders of their ruler, Sigeric. The next year, 10 CE, new Atlian troops under Gnaeus Camilius were dispatched, and gained a significant advantage, and compelled the Iadanian League to make peace following a major Atlian victory at Maniterra. The result of this first campaign was the was the dissolution of the Iadanian League and the incorporation of the territory into the Kingdom of Atlia. However, several Iadanian city-states secretly rebuilt military power over the following years and attacked Atlian garrisons again in 14 CE. In response, King Lucius II personally marched into Iadania, attacking the rebelling cities. Following the now-famous Siege of Anettia, the de-facto capital of the rebelling territories, Anettian leaders attempted to surrender, but in his rage, Lucius II ordered the entire population executed and the city razed to the ground. The defeated Iadanian commander, Lanfranc the Bold, committed suicide to avoid capture.
Union of Crowns
The Laurentian Rebellion
A mere decades later, in 44 CE, the Dalinist faith saw its first major dispute. Focused on questions related to who was the foremost of the Intercessors, three major groups arose. The first was centered on the writings of Valentinus of Cavalli, and became known as the Valentinians. The Valentinians believed that, while Dalin was the Great Prophet, in heaven all intercessors were considered equal, and therefore none should take precedence in worship. The second group was the Laurentians, who believed that St. Laurentius, whom Dalin described as "first of God's chosen" and is the earliest Intercessor mentioned in the Dalinist Scrolls, was also the highest in precedence in heaven. They pointed to the "first of God's chosen" passage not as a description of chronology, but of favor. The final group was the Prophescians, who believed that Dalin, as the Great Prophet and Deliverer of the Word, was the highest in God's favor. By this point in history, King TBA had converted to Dalinism, and the Church was a central power in Atlia and nearby civilizations.
As debates grew more and more expansive and bitter, the divide threatened to tear the early Dalinists apart, and with it the fledgling Kingdom. As such, King TBA turned to the his spiritual advisor, Entivius, to arbitrate the dispute. Entivius facilitated the a gathering of church leaders from across the land, known as the First Council. However, Entivius was sympathetic to the Prophescians, and slanted the debate in favor of the sect. As such, the Prophescian doctrine was affirmed by the Council. The Valentinians managed to retain their positions, but the Laurentians were cast out of the Council and the Church.
The Laurentians were angered by this; they took to arms later that year. Queen Maria I, at the behest of Entivius, turned her armies upon them, and the Laurentian Rebellion was quelled. This left two main branches of the faith in terms of belief and doctrine: the Valentinians and the Prophescians.
The Federation of Pisania
The Pisanians were a recognized ethnic group with a religious center at Pynia from at least the seventh century BCE. In the course of the first century CE, the Federation of Pisania was founded, but it is uncertain when. One suggestion is that the league was founded by Arthwr the Great in 15 CE, and archaeology indicates that settlements in Pisania began to grow in size and complexity over the course of this century.
The Federation of Pisania joined the United Kingdoms of Conselia and Nicostia in the War of the Serene Coast against the Kingdom of Atlia in 34 CE, participating in invasions of Atlia in 41, 47 and 53 CE. In 60 CE, they were victorious in the Battle of the Pynian Sanctuary against the Kingdom of Baresia, who had invaded Pisania and was threatening the Sanctuary of Pynia.
First Pan-Peninsular War
The First Pan-Peninsular War (79–86 CE) was fought between the Kingdom of Atlia and its allies – the Kingdom of Sabinia, the Holy Kingdom of Trevisia, the Kingdom of Pioria, and the Kingdom of Baresia – against the United Kingdoms of Conselia and Nicostia and its allies – the Federation of Pisania and the Udinesian Confederacy. There were several causes for the war including TBA, TBA, and the envy and concern felt by Atlia at the growth of Conselia-Nicostia.
The First Pan-Peninsular War began in 79 CE with the Battle of Maveia, where Atlian forces were defeated by those of Conselian alliance. The Atlians, however, counterattacked and scored a crushing victory over the Conselians at the Battle of Nimaida, and followed this victory up by conquering all of Conselia-Nicostia west of Viati. However, in 82 CE, this territory revolted, and with the support of the Conselian alliance, defeated the Atlians at the Battle of Sirasi and regained their independence.
The First Pan-Peninsular War ended in an arrangement between Atlia and Conselia-Nicostia which was enacted in 86 CE. According to the provisions of this peace treaty, both sides maintained the main parts of their empires: Conselia-Nicostia continued its domination of the west, while Atlia dominated the east. The cities of Nimaida and Sirasi were granted to the Kingdom of Atlia, and the Kingdom of Baresia was demilitarized.
Rise of the First Atlian Republic
Atlia had been ruled by hereditary monarchs since its foundation. The last Atlian monarch of this period was named TBA, and in traditional histories TBA was expelled from Atlia in 121 CE because ... And ... mustered support from the Senate and Atlian army and forced the former monarch into exile to Eboria. After this incident, the Senate agreed to abolish the monarchy. In turn, most of the former functions of the king were transferred to a council of three executives, called Alturae (singular Alturis). These Alturae were elected to office for a term of one year, and each was capable of acting as a "check" on his colleagues. Furthermore, if an Alturis were to abuse his powers in office, he could be prosecuted by the Senate. TBA became first Alturae of the First Atlian Republic. According to Atlia's traditional histories, TBA made several attempts to retake the throne, including the TBAan conspiracy, but none succeeded.
Expansion of the Federation of Pisania
Demise of the Kingdom of Casentia
Demise of the Holy Kingdom of Trevisia
Demise of the Udinesian Confederacy
In 231 CE, During the Atli-Valorian War (232–226 CE), the Udinesian Confederacy flirted with the idea of an alliance with TBA of Atlia, and the Valorians punished it by taking several hostages to ensure good behavior. In 222 CE, the Udinesian Confederacy's relations with the Kingdom of Valoria completely collapsed, leading to the War of the Mountain. The Valorians under TBA defeated the Udinesians at the Battle of TBA, burned the city to the ground, and dissolved the Udinesian Confederacy, taking full control of the Udine Mountains.
The Holy Dalinist Church
Expansion of the Federation of Pisania
Union of Crowns
Collapse of the First Atlian Republic
The first major doctrinal feud in the Holy Dalinist Church occurred in 401 CE. Since the early decades of the 1st century CE, Dalinist leaders had debated the legitimacy of the Letters of the Northern Isles, by Mégara of Eboria, as church doctrine. The letters prescribed the basic tenets of Dalinist practice, and had been widely accepted by many churches in the area. However, by 401 CE, an increasingly popular group began debating the legitimacy of using the writings, as they didn't come from Dalin himself. At the center of the debate was inclusion of public prayer in Church worship. To quote the First Letter of the Northern Isles, "You shall stand as one and lift your voices in exultation to God's glory, for he has provided for you." This seemed to fly in the face of Dalin's prescription for prayer in the First Prophecy: "One who shouts in the market square of their love for God is no true believer, for he seeks only the acceptance of flawed matter. Blessed are they who keep God in their heart."
At the center of this debate were the churches of Monte Gabrieli, which believed that the letters were not divinely inspired and should not be used, and Peri, which believed that Mégara's letters were doctrinally consistent with the teachings of the Holy Dalinist Church. The debate grew heated, and so the Second Council of Aleotti was formed. After three months of debate, the Council agreed that only Intercessors could prescribe Church doctrine, but also agreed that Mégara showed all the signs of an Intercessor. As such, she was proclaimed an Intercessor, and her letters were collected and published.
However, those opposed to the adoption of the Letters viewed this decision as an "intolerable perversion of the Divine Revelation given to Dalin as the Great Prophet," and declared their secession from the Holy Dalinist Church and formed the Orthodox Dalinist Church.
Return of the Kingdom of Casentia
- 422 CE: Kingdom of Casentia re-established
Return of the Confederacy of Eboria
- 439 CE: Confederacy of Eboria re-established
Rise of the Second Atlian Republic
- 467 CE: Second Atlian Republic founded
Medieval history (c. 500 – c. 1500 CE)
The next two hundred years were marked by increasing Church influence in the day-to-day governance of the people. As Church structures became increasingly more complex, the internal politics and workings of the Church became increasingly important and tumultuous. In 577 CE, the Third Council of Aleotti was called to discuss a modernization of church leadership. At this meeting, the position of Archon – a single, divinely-anointed leader of the church selected by the Council – was established. After weeks of deliberation, the Council posthumously appointed Avus the Righteous – a beloved Dalinist leader in the 1st century CE and the first martyr of the faith – as the first Archon.
Fall of the Second Atlian Republic
In 716 CE, High Queen Maria III of Atlia, a benevolent and beloved ruler, suffered a stroke and passed away. Her firstborn son, Benedetto, was declared High King Benedetto II by the Archon of the Holy Dalinist Church, and the Atlian nobility was summoned to Leoncavallo to pledge their loyalty to him. However, in a stark turn from his mother's rule, Benedetto II was callous and power-hungry, and demanded higher tribute from the various Atlian territories. This move, combined with his sour attitude more generally, turned several of the higher-ranking nobles against him, and in the coming months, these nobles would seek from among themselves a "more suitable ruler." In 718 CE, this group selected their challenger to the throne: Martino Miloné, Lord-Governor of St. Mégara's Isles and close friend of the dearly-departed Maria III.
Later the same year, this group of nobles coalesced their forces in St. Mégara's Isles, and, under the command of Lord Miloné, set sail for the Atlian mainland. For three months, they besieged Leoncavallo, eventually forcing the High King's surrender – not when his people were starving due to the blockade, but instead when he could no longer get his own preferred luxuries, such as his favorite types of imported cheese. Lord Miloné then declared himself High King Martino I of Atlia, and had Benedetto II imprisoned. However, the newly-declared High King quickly faced his first hurdle: Archon Antonio III refused to recognize Martino as High King, instead holding that the deposed Benedetto II was the divinely-anointed High King of Atlia. Instead of seeking the Archon's blessing to rule Atlia, Martino I declared himself High King of Milonia, moved the capital to St. Mégara's Isles, and established Orthodox Dalinism as the state religion – marking the first departure from the Holy Dalinist Church in nearly half a millennium of Atlian rule.
At the same time, Martino I forcibly converted the populace of surrounding territories to Dalinism in the last War of Conversion. Thus began the historical period known as the Second Kingdom, which would last five hundred years.
Milonian Golden Age
High King Martino I died in 739 CE, and was succeeded by his son, Alberto I. Alberto I was a capable military commander in his own right, and led a series of brutal, expansionist attacks on the surrounding lands. When questioned by one of the local Lords, who was skeptical of the new King's approach to governing, King Alberto I allegedly proclaimed:
- "I have broken the spine of the Kingdom, you say? ... Sometimes, things must be broken in order to be rebuilt! As I have bent the Kingdom to my will, so I will bend the world, and it will know order. My true work is about to begin."
While internal conflicts between the rapidly increasing number of dukes, lords, and barons were common, the Crown of Milonia held stable power for the duration of the Second Kingdom.
For the next 300 years, the Kingdom was officially at peace. However, border skirmishes continued. In 952 CE, towards the end of King Josef I’s reign, rebellions began occurring. With the army forced to deal with the rebellions in the South, the tribal forces in the west rallied and surged over the borders. Combat was not swift, and the war was defined by quickly shifting and changing borders. Finally, around 980 CE, the western tribes were pushed far enough back that they surrendered, making another long-term peace treaty.
The Singer Rebellion
The greatest divisions at the time were between sects of the Dalinist faith. The greatest controversy was related to the division between the Orthodox Dalinist Church and the [[[Holy Dalinist Church]]. The Patrus of Monte Gabrieli and the Holy Dalinist Archon would battle for years, both seeing themselves as the true leader and heart of the Church. While early on the throne aligned itself with the Orthodox Dalinist Church, this changed over the years due to marriages with Holy Dalinist nobility. In 967 CE, the throne of Milonia officially left the Orthodox Dalinist Church with the capital's move to Leoncavallo, much to the dismay of the Orthodox Church. The Patrus of Monte Gabrieli would work with the nobility over the coming decades to attempt to reinstall an Orthodox king.
In 1011 CE, this came to a head with the Singer Rebellions. Harald Miloné, a cousin of then-King Ferdinand II, rose up with the backing of the Orthodox Dalinist Church and a collection of nobles, and attempted to take the throne by force. His defeat in 1013 CE at the First Battle of Leoncavallo led to his exile on St. Mégara's Isle. He would rise again two years later, leading to his execution in 1016 CE. The end of the Singer Rebellions would lead to a period of peace and prosperity for the nation that would last for a century, marked only by minor political and religious squabbles that would set the formation of the modern Dalinist Church in motion.
Milonian War of Succession
At the end of his life, High King Bernardo I had a succession problem: his three sons Marco (d. 1251 CE), Roberto (d. 1139 CE), and Giovanni (d. 1247 CE) had all predeceased him, thus leaving only his three daughters:
- Sofia, married to Adorno Iyvellada, Duke of Draconia
- Maria, married to Louis II, Emperor of the Biancci-Lorenian Empire
- Giuliette, married to TBA, King of Afafanua
According to the Milonian Empire's feudal law, only men were allowed to rule; since the 9th century, however, when an aging ruler lacked male descendants, High Kings had often enfeoffed one of his daughters instead of different male relatives or male in-laws, thus introducing cognatic succession. However, in many lands throughout the realm this new phenomenon was resisted in favor of traditional agnatic (male-only) succession. In 1255 CE, Bernardo I determined that Sofia would inherit all his territories and that Maria and Giuliette would be financially compensated.
Although Bernardo I was not the first Milonian king to appoint his daughter as his successor, still not all parties in the realm agreed with this practice. When Bernardo I died on 5 June 1257, his eldest daughter, Sofia, succeeded him according to his plan. However, this inheritance settlement was challenged by his sons-in-law in the Biancci-Lorenian Empire and Afafanua, who demanded a territorial partition between the three sisters and thus between Milonia, the Biancci-Lorenian Empire, and Afafanua. These requests were ignored by the Queen, now Sofia I of Milonia, enraging the two men.
On 15 August 1257, Louis II of Biancci-Lorenian Empire declared war on Milonia. The Biancci-Lorenian armies were initially extremely successful, and Leoncavallo was besieged and captured. By the end of September 1257 CE, Masellari, Falceri, Monte Gabrieli, and Bassano had surrendered to the Biancci-Lorenian forces. Sofia I took refuge in TBA; meanwhile, TBA, King of Afafanua and husband to Bernardo's third daughter Giuliette, also disputed the succession and made war on Milonia. In 1259 CE, however, he agreed to recognize Sofia I as High Queen of Milonia in exchange for a Lordship and a substantial annual payment from the Empire. Louis II, however, was not as compromising, and continued his war with great ferocity.
Later that year, in an attempt to save the jeopardized Empire, Duke Adorno Iyvellada of Draconia, husband of Sofia I, called on his cousin, the King of Erynia, for assistance. While the Kingdom of Erynia initially refused to provide military support, they later brokered a peace deal, called the Leoncavallo Accord, which split the Empire of Milonia in two: the Kingdom of Courelli in the west, ruled by Sofia I, and the Kingdom of Lesia in the east, ruled by Maria.
However, this fragile peace was not long to last. In 1268 CE, Queen Maria of Lesia died, and her teenage son was crowned King Roberto of Lesia. Having been raised as a young child in the great halls of the Milonian Empire, and having witnessed what he believed to be a conspiracy between his grandfather, Bernardo I of Milonia, and his aunt, Sofia I of Courelli, to defraud his mother of her royal birthright, Roberto – with the support of his father, Emperor Louis II of the Biancci-Lorenian Empire – declared war on the Kingdom of Courelli in a bid to restore the Milonian Empire. Religious divides again came to the fore: the Orthodox Dalinist Church heavily supported Roberto, and riled up their followers to support him. Duke Adorno Iyvellada of Draconia, husband of Sofia I, traveled around the country to oppose Roberto's forces, directing, among other operations, an eight-month siege of the Castle at the Black Hill, north of Leoncavallo. The Duke's campaign was initially successful in driving back Roberto's forces, and the war quickly became a defensive war for the Kingdom of Lesia. However, in April 1272 CE, the Duke was captured and executed by Roberto's forces in Bassano, and his body cast into a shallow grave.
Queen Sofia I, upon receiving news of her husband's death, was inconsolable. As her grief simmered, it turned into anger, and then into a burning desire for vengeance. Sofia, against the advice of her Most Noble Council of Lords, took up her sword and led the armies of the Kingdom of Courelli into battle. In June 1272 CE, she invaded the western reaches of the Biancci-Lorenian Empire, but then was forced to retreat; in November, Louis II of the Biancci-Lorenian Empire seized the King's Retreat Castle northwest of Leoncavallo. On 7 March 1274 CE, the Biancci-Lorenian governor of Trevisia – one of the southwestern provinces of the Biancci-Lorenian Empire – was deposed, killed, and replaced by the forces of Sofia I. Meanwhile, in the north, the Queen's son, Prince Fiorenzo of Courelli, successfully pushed back Roberto's forces at Bassano and reclaimed the body of his father. He proceeded westward, where he and his forces besieged Magnani, but the forces of the Biancci-Lorenian Empire, helped by foreign mercenaries, broke the siege. At the same time, Courellian ships blockaded the Lorenian Sea coast to stop the flow of goods and troops into and out of both Lesia and Biancci-Lorenia – an operation which lasted 3 years.
|Battle of the Fields of Blood|
|Part of the Milonian War of Succession|
Kingdom of Lesia|
Kingdom of Courelli|
Kingdom of Draconia
Holy Dalinist Church
|Commanders and leaders|
Roberto of Lesia|
Louis II of Biancci-Lorenia
Sofia I of Courelli|
Adorno of Draconia
The Biancci-Lorenian Emperor Louis II gathered his forces on the border of his domain, preparing to attack. On 12 September 1277 CE, the combined forces of Roberto and Louis II recaptured Magnani and then Bassano. On 28 October 1277 CE, the armies of Sofia I of Courelli and Roberto of Lesia met at the Battle of the Fields of Blood. Roberto's forces were decisively beaten by the Courellians, and Roberto himself captured. The defeat put an end to the war, and Roberto was forced to accept the punitive Treaty of Paladino Valley. Through the treaty, Roberto acknowledged his defeat in battle, pledged his loyalty to the Kingdom of Courelli and to Sofia I as its rightful Queen, and promised to cease all military hostility against the Kingdom. The most interesting stipulation of the pact was that it required the agreement of the Courellian monarch to any marriage of the children of Roberto. Furthermore, amnesty was granted to Roberto and all the nobles who fought alongside him, in order to "restore the Unity of the Kingdom, its Lands, and its People, and stop the flow of the rivers of blood which have for too long watered its fields."
In 1332 CE, under King Fredrich II, Christophe’s son, the Kingdom of Courelli willingly adopted the Script of Lords, which became the basis for its Constitution and National Assembly. Meanwhile, the Western tribes were dissolving under the pressure of their own feuding lords, first losing control of their eastern reaches to rebellion in 1321 CE, then their southern-most territories in a series of conflicts between 1327 CE and 1337 CE. The Kingdom of Courelli bided its time under the rule of Fredrich, and waited for the eastern tribes to exhaust themselves in a series of internal conflicts. Finally, in 1346 CE, Fredrich turned his forces westward and began capturing western territories. The wars were swift and decisive. By 1354, the whole land was united under the Courellian Crown.
This became the status quo for the next 200 years. The Milon dynasty reestablished itself, and used this period to begin efforts at unifying the nation under a single culture. This involved the creation of extensive road systems, the spread of Orthodox doctrine eastward, and a requirement for a unity of language. This became a period of peace and growth for the nation.
Heresies and crusades
The second formative event for the Church during this time was the Zaccarian Heresy. The Zaccarians were a Dalinist sect based in Monte Gabrieli, led by Appéto Zaccarus. The Zaccarians were at first a group of ascetics, who gained such popularity that in 1381 CE, one of their own was named Archon. Soon thereafter, the group began hypothesizing as to the nature of God, and eventually came to the conclusion that God was not a single entity, but had been broken apart into sparks of divinity that had been implanted into the world. Some people were born with a divine spark and others were not, and only those born with the spark could ascend to heaven. This flew in the face of traditional doctrine, and the church split. The Anti-Zaccarians established themselves in Leoncavallo and set up a new Archon. A brief but bloody holy war followed, and in the end the Zaccarians were defeated and excommunicated.
The other events that marked both Church and state were the series of holy wars that ranged across the Atlian peninsula and neighboring areas at this time. Traditional pagan worship was seen as heretical by the Dalinist faith, and crusades to defeat pagan lords and convert them to Dalinism were common. Such crusades and wars are at the center of many stories. Called the Wars of Conversion, they form the central cultural image of the Late First Kingdom Age for most modern Courellians, romanticized as they are due to the imagery of the "gallant knight", which later generations would add into the tales.
In 1381 CE, however, the Orthodox Dalinist Church faced a crisis as the Movine Heresy began to gain a foothold. The Church leveraged its power on the crown, but was faced with a cold shoulder. This led to the excommunication of several important lords and the brief Movine War, which lasted three months. At the end, the role of Archon-on-Milonia of the Orthodox Dalinist Church was dissolved and incorporated into the role of the crown. The excommunicated lords were absolved and allowed back into the fold of the Church, and the Movine Heresy was squashed.
Modern history (c. 1500 CE – Present)
|c. 1500 CE – Present|
|Preceded by||Medieval history|
|Kingdom of Courelli||Kingdom of Afafanua|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Casualties and losses|
In 1494, King Josef IV of Courelli asked for the hand of the neighboring Afafanuan Prince's daughter in marriage, to seal an alliance, but was refused. Taking this insult to heart, he called for war. Courellian ships sailed south, and the Avanuan War began. Courelli swept through the island, and by 1500 had conquered it entirely.
Starting in 1505, having consolidated its holdings in Avanua, the crown turned its attention outward. They began sending out explorers to nearby lands, the most notable of whom were Jasper Gray, a conman-turned-sailor, and Lord Mardo Bradley, a wealthy merchant. Gray used his silver-tongue and skill for naval command to establish several colonies in the surrounding region, while Bradley eventually established the Bradley Shipping Company, which would become an important force in the nearly 400 years of Courellian imperialism, especially in colonization of Harndon.
Gray would eventually return to Courelli to accept a lordship and commendation from the crown, and served under King Josef IV as chief naval advisor, and eventual regent for King Christophe IV. Although he showed piety and intelligence, Christophe IV was only nine years old when he took the throne in 1510. His uncle, Alphonse, tampered with Josef IV's will, and obtained letters patent giving him much of the power of a monarch by March 1511. He took the title of Protector. Whilst some see him as a high-minded idealist, his stay in power culminated in a crisis in 1513, when many counties of the kingdom were up in protest. Alphonse, disliked by the National Assembly for his autocratic methods, was removed from power by Gray. Gray proceeded to adopt the power of Protector for himself, but his methods were more conciliatory and the National Assembly accepted him.
However, in 1522, Protector Gray ordered former King Christophe IV to be executed, in an attempt to end the Porras dynasty and solidify his hold on power. The former King was publicly skinned alive, and a book detailing the "sins, cruelties, and iniquities of House Porras" was bound with his flesh. After this, Protector Gray's popularity plummeted. In 1526, Antonio was killed by an anonymous assassin (historians now believe to have been hired by Courellian nobles), and Philip III, the brother of Christophe IV, was crowned King.
Simultaneously, the Bradley Shipping Company was expanding its reach and influence, establishing itself as a primary political and trade force in many nations, acting as an arm of the Courellian Crown. Overseas, they began integrating themselves into the local political networks. Using their wealth, they were able to leverage their way into positions of influence in the nation, and over the next century would act as a destabilizing force for local rulership. In 1550, Courellian settlers would establish the first colonies in Noirmarche.
During this time, the basics of the landed gentry system began to gain deeper roots. Systems were established that provided greater and greater powers to the aristocracy, most notably in the functions of the legislative system. The Six Lords Act of 1533 established the basis for future Courellian governance in the form of the initial systems of the Council of Lords and its power over the National Assembly. The reign of Philip III was seen as a golden age for Courelli. Issues which had divided the country for hundreds of years, including language and religion, had finally homogenized to the point of seeing a united Courellian presence and culture; internal peace was at a high. This allowed for an expansion of the powers of government, but due to the Six Lords' Act, the power of the nobility was maintained. James died in 1567, and was succeeded first by his eldest son, Marcus, who died the following year, and then by Peter, who would rule until 1588.
Roots of imperialism
Courellian imperialism didn't truly grow to a head until the early 1600s. Before this time, the focus of Courellian growth was purely business based, avoiding military conflict if at all possible. Starting in 1601, however, Courelli began building up its naval power for rapid outward expansion. Utilizing trade routes established by the Bradley Shipping Company, Courelli allowed would-be colonies to grow dependent on Courellian trade, before severing the lines and utilizing naval might to force a stranglehold on local powers. Thus, Courellian imperialism began in earnest. A perfect example of this operation was in Harndon, where the BSC began leveraging their wealth and trade to begin controlling King Lvijas. This inflamed local passions and caused Harndon to tear itself apart. The BSC simply withdrew to their island fortresses to wait out the instability. When things settled, Harndon was still weak from the divide, and the Courellian Navy arrived on the coast. They took several coastal towns, and set up a blockade on the country, which they used as a foothold to walk over the now-chaotic area.
|Battle of Gonth Bay|
|Part of the Courellian Invasion of Harndon|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Casualties and losses|
|20px TBA||No known survivors|
Having waited for their trade blockade to take its toll, the Courellian Navy struck. Entering the Sea of Monwe a day before the spring equinox, the navy timed their assault with the Harndonians' "Kiko celebrations", hoping to catch the tribespeople unaware. The Harndonians, however, had stationed scout vessels along the north-eastern edge of the Sea of Monwe, one of which was able to flee back to the mainland before the rest were blown out of the water.
The Courellian Navy then turned their sights on Quechkhonia to the south-west, and set sail in hopes to overrun the Hardonian city. A small Harndonian warfleet of 24 vessels moved to engage the navy in the Gonth Bay, which was blanketed in dense fog, allowing the smaller Harndonian ships to sneak towards the Courellian fleet.
A diary entry from a sailor on the Courellian vessel Milonian Vengeance give details on what happened next:
- "We were sailing through the dense fog, relying on our compasses and previous headings to lead us to the pagan's great temples – or whatever they called them. It was totally quiet, apart from the creak of the ship beneath us and the lapping waves against the hull. Everyone was tense. Suddenly, we heard screams from starboard of us, away from the shore. The breeze carried the voices of my panicked brothers, pleading not to die. Flashes of light lit the fog, and we initially thought that was our cannons firing at something, but the color was wrong: it was a luminous green mixed with bright orange. Without warning, something blew up at our bow, throwing a fiery spray the same color as the flashes before. The spray landed on some of the sailors near me, and they died screaming, unable to wash the hellish fluid off, even using the water we had in buckets on the deck."
- "The screaming to the right of us got louder, and flashes of both our gunfire and their chemical fire lit up on all sides. Our starboard cannons roared, firing blindly in the direction of the screams. We rushed over to that side, clutching our muskets, but we couldn't see anything we could confidently fire at. I've never been in a naval battle so confused before. It was awful."
The flanking attack by the Harndonians was a success, spreading fear and panic into the Courellian fleet. Fires spread onto many Courellian ships, with 15 being totally destroyed or ablaze within the first 10 minutes. After adjusting to the initial surprise, however, the tide turned: the rest of the Courellian fleet fired blindly into the direction of the flankers with grapeshot, decimating both Courellian and Harndonian ships and troops. By the time the bay fell silent, no Harndonian vessel was left, and the Courellians had lost 22 ships, and approximately half their troops.
The Courellian Navy then turned their attention to shore. Small landing craft were sent to investigate the coast, with orders to return if the area was clear. After 2 hours, they still hadn't been seen. Taking this as the only clue they were going to get, the fleet fired their cannons onto the fog-shrouded shore, again using grapeshot. The Harndonians were massacred. Those who survived fled, taking what was left of their fallen home with them, and disappeared into the forest. Horrified at the losses they had sustained, the Courellians nevertheless continued south-west, until they arrived at the site of the Five Temples. Though expecting resistance, there was no-one to be found. The 5 Temples were empty, apart from the fabled riches that the Courellian Empire was determined to gain.
Over the course of the year, more ships were sent to Harndon, and most managed to cross the now-infamous Sea of Monwe, and it's hidden tribesmen with chemical firearms. The Courellians marched onwards, capturing more villages, and destroying native shrines. There was no physical resistance by the Harndonians, but the natives resisted in their own, unique way – in every settlement the Courellians came across, traps, some crude, made with sharpened sticks and faeces; others with the same chemical weaponry that laid waste to the fleet in the Battle of Gonth Bay, lay in wait, ready for an unsuspecting soldier to open that door, or to step on that path. The effect on morale was devastating: troops recruited to go to Harndon were known as the "Unlucky Legions" amongst the Courellian people, and the offensive was slow.
Despite their difficulties, the long, agonizing campaign was declared a success in 1632, when the Courellian Empire had decided it owned enough of the productive areas to stop expansion. Not particularly interested in pushing further west since they had access to the resources they intended to capture, the Courellians spent the next century consolidating their power and imposing Courellian law over the area, including teaching of Dalinism and building of Dalinist churches. Settlements either built by Courellians, or expanded and made permanent by them, became islands of security in a sea of threat: it was impossible to tell if you would make it to your destination alive if you dared to venture out of a settlement.
Formation of the Republic
The rapid expansion of the Courellian Empire was stayed in the late 1600s by the Courellian Civil War. In 1653, A large body of revolutionaries, dubbed Republicans, dissatisfied with the monarchy, conducted a series of attacks on the forces of King Eric II, the sitting monarch of the Kingdom of Courelli. In a grueling seven-year Civil War, the Royalists and Republicans met in many bloody battles, which culminated in January 1660 at the Third Battle of Leoncavallo, where the Royalist Army was defeated. King Eric II fled to Avanua, but was eventually handed over to the National Assembly in 1662. He escaped, and the war continued, although it ended quickly, with the Republican Army quickly securing the country. The capture and subsequent trial of Eric II led to his beheading in May 1663 at the Town Square in Leoncavallo, and Courelli was established as a republic.
Going forward, the National Assembly desired to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, and negotiated the Constitution of the Republic of Courelli. Under this Constitution, the National Assembly was a central authority without any legislative power. It could pass its own resolutions, determinations, and regulations, but not any laws, and could not impose any taxes or enforce regulations upon its citizens. This institutional design reflected how Courellians believed the deposed system of Crown ought to have functioned, with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire nation.
Regional governments, now called Provinces, were out from under monarchic rule, and assigned some formerly-royal prerogatives (making war, receiving ambassadors) to the National Assembly; the remaining prerogatives were lodged within their own respective Provincial governments.
With peace now at hand, the Provinces turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1678, Courellians found their continental borders besieged and weak, and their respective economies in crises as neighboring Provinces agitated trade rivalries with one another. They witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their commerce preyed upon by Pirates, and their Civil War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed.
Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Énaudi and Monteverdi at the Picci Conference in 1685, Énaudi called for a conference between all the Provinces, set for September 1686 in Leoncavallo, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms. When the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other Provinces, NAME led the Giordano delegation in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Constitution, to be held the next spring. Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until NAME and NAME succeeded in securing NAME's attendance to the convention as a delegate for Salieri.
When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1687, the delegations in attendance brought with them an accumulated experience over a diverse set of institutional arrangements between legislative and executive branches from within their respective Provincial governments. Most Provinces maintained a weak executive without veto or appointment powers, elected annually by the legislature to a single term only, sharing power with an executive council, and countered by a strong legislature. Monteverdi offered the greatest exception, having a strong, unitary governor with veto and appointment power elected to a three-year term, and eligible for reelection to an indefinite number of terms thereafter. It was through the closed-door negotiations at the Convention that the executive framed in the Constitution as we know it today, which would be adopted in August 1689, emerged.
The Pirate Wars
|Battle of Black Fog|
|Part of the Pirate Wars|
|Commanders and leaders|
|20px Sebastiano Domenico||Venetto Albari|
|20px approx. 650||approx. 500|
|Casualties and losses|
|20px approx. 280||approx. 330|
The 1700s were marked by a series of conflicts. As a result of lucrative Courellian trade with its colonies and allies, the waters surrounding Courelli were becoming increasingly prone to piracy. The Republic made it a priority to combat the increased pirate activity, beginning the continuous and frequent Pirate Wars of the 1700s and early 1800s.
The bloodiest of the Pirate Wars occurred at their outset, between 1710 and 1720. Courelli had formed a special navy of pirate hunters and privateers to combat the growing threat to their trade dominion. Famous pirate captain (and former captain of the Courellian Navy) Venetto Albari gathered together a force rivaling the size of the whole of the Courellian Navy. The pirate hunting brigade was forced into a decisive conflict with the pirate armada at the Battle of Black Fog, so-called because primary sources claim that the sea was "so choked by the smoke from the cannons it seemed God had decided to send in a black fog." The pirate armada was only broken by the sudden arrival of help from Courellian naval genius, Admiral Sebastiano Domenico. While Captain Albari himself escaped the end of the conflict and would later retire in Anaaxes, it is said that more than 300 pirates were executed after the battle and dumped overboard to feed "an army of sharks", although the number has been debated in modern times.
In 1746, pirate forces swept into the Noirmarche colonies. Over the next two years, the most disastrous of the Pirate Wars would be waged, forcing back the Courellian army and eventually ousting the Courellian colonial government. The pirates would conquer the Noirmarche colonies and establish their own nation in 1748. In order to pay for the increasingly expensive wars, the Government once again began raising taxes in the colonies. Colonists took this as an excuse to begin raising armies, and in 1748, revolted against the Courellian government. Local Courellian soldiers were rapidly pushed back to their well-defended ports, which were besieged by the rebels. The rebel navy moved in and trapped the Courellian forces in many of their port cities. According to folk tales, one brave Courellian soldier, John Lockesley, swam past the rebel navy in the dead of night and stole a rowboat, with which he rowed home to warn Courelli. The accuracy of this tale is minuscule at best. It is more likely that loyalist infiltrators of the rebels themselves smuggled Lockesley out of the country themselves. When all seemed lost, the Courellian navy arrived and trapped the rebel navy between them and land, tearing apart the rebel forces. Morale broken, the rebels fell back, and were defeated by the Courellian army in 1753.
In 1804, a Courellian pirate hunter mistakenly sunk a Hirematiyaale merchant vessel off the coast of Avanua. This was followed by a retaliatory strike from the United Island Republics of Hirematia, sinking the Courellian merchant vessel St. Albert. The two nations declared war in August of 1804, leading to the Hirematiyaale invasion of Avanua later that year. The war was swift and decisive on the side of Hirematia due to the fact that Avanua was sparsely defended and Courelli was militarily spread thin across the Empire. Years later, Governor Cesario Nacca's wife, Isabella, wrote, in a memoir about her husband's service to the Republic, that he considered the loss of Avanua to Hirematia to be the lowest point of his tenure. She recounted that, though he was a man of many words and great stories, he only ever said one thing about the event:
- "It is such a quiet thing to fall... but far more terrible as to admit it."
Revolt and reform
As Courelli became more secular, religious groups became more extreme. On December 24, 1731, pagan rebels attempted to assassinate Governor Arturo Di Martino. The six rebels managed to sneak into the National Assembly chamber under the guise of service staff. Armed with daggers, one of the would-be assassins managed to stab the Governor twice before being taken down by guards. All of the rebels in the National Assembly chamber were captured, and the Governor survived the stabbing. This led to the Wheatfield Crisis, wherein known pagans had their rights suppressed and were executed en masse.
In 1742, Courelli faced the Great Slave Revolt. Slaves across the homeland, emboldened by propositions presented by Hellingsford Freeman and Lucas Potvin in their travels across Courelli, took arms against their masters, who were primarily members of the landed gentry. The revolts started in Falceri and rapidly spread across Courelli, particularly to the rice paddies of the south. Homeland agricultural production ground nearly to a halt. By September of that year, the domestic economy faced such a crisis that Governor Sebastiano Pinelli issued the Emancipation Order, officially banning slavery in Courelli. While slaves were freed, many wound up signing themselves into indentured servitude over the following years, essentially returning them to their previous standing.
On the homefront, Courelli was focused on the development of its interior. Courellian culture, which had always been centered on the ideals of work ethic and efficiency, were swift to embrace industrial reform, and began an industrial revolution in the early 1800s. This movement was guided by the highly influential Bradley Shipping Company, which over the first decade of the 19th Century would shift from its trade dominance to manufacturing, becoming the Bradley Machinery Company in 1811. The internationally accepted "Courellian identity" was cemented at this time: hard-working, financially motivated and resourceful.
This period of rapid industrialization brought with it systems that would remain entrenched for the coming centuries. The indentured service, workhouse and debtors prisons systems came to be intertwined in an intrinsic fashion. Banks and large-scale, nobility-owned corporations started coming into existence. The national interest in manufacturing exploded. The city of Leoncavallo's population tripled in a period of five years as its factories became central to the Courellian economy.
1848 saw reforms in voting rights, as the battle for women's suffrage began. Women marched on the National Assembly, one of the earliest examples of non-violent protest in Courellian history. In 1849, the Women's Rights Act passed, and women were given full and equal voting, property ownership and employment rights as men. This sowed a seed for further rights reforms in coming decades, and was the first glimmer of anti-aristocratic sentiment that would come to grow over the next century-and-a-half.
The 1850s were marked by the Courellian Silver Rush. While silver had always been available, a particularly large vein was discovered in 1852, which led thousands to rush eastward in the hopes of capturing their fortunes. Mining corporations began selling prospecting licenses for land owned by their holdings, and developed legal teams for finding and prosecuting illegal prospectors. Known as Pellmans, after Louis Pellman of the Leoncavallo Mining Corporation, their ruthlessness and brutality was well-noted, and some historians point to this moment as the first sign of corporate power overreach in Courelli.
From 1840 to 1860, marijuana growth and usage came to prominence in Courelli. Known as "soft opium", its use was common among the lower classes, particularly factory workers. It's usage exploded in 1855, when the National Assembly passed large taxes on beer, rendering the beverage unaffordable to most people. Marijuana became the post-work relaxant of choice in Courelli, far surpassing alcohol and tobacco in that regard. While its use dwindled in the late 1860s and 1870s, its use would be considered normal thereafter.
The 1860s also saw the completion of the original Courellian Rail Network, with it then possible to travel from Leoncavallo in the southeast to the western-most tip of Courelli non-stop on a single ticket. The run became famous when it was raced by six men on horseback, leading to the death of two engineers in a rockslide, and one of the horsemen to drowning during a river crossing.
At the same time, a series of cholera outbreaks ran rampant across the mainland of Courelli. These outbreaks reached epidemic levels over the years between 1880 and 1883, before finally subsiding. Following the epidemic, Courelli began large-scale infrastructure development to combat future disease. Huge building projects began, including construction of then-modern sewer systems, hospitals and transport systems. Courellian infrastructure was so impressive that the nation’s engineering and industrial expertise was the envy of many other nations around the globe. At the same time, the resources, troops and will to hold onto colonial holdings in Harndon simply no longer existed. Courelli made the bitter decision to withdraw entirely: families, soldiers, and workers were moved from the relative safety of their fortified settlements into the forests and the mountains, in order to make their way to the ports. The Harndonians had a field day – entire communities were murdered whilst on the march. None were spared; not women, not children, not the unarmed, and those that managed to avoid or escape the local tribespeople left Harndon forever, permanently scarred by what they had been exposed to.
In the early 1890s, Avanua faced revolution from a group supporting independence from Hirematia. With Hirematiyaale support, the territorial government began a bloody purge, cracking down on those engaged in or suspected of abetting revolutionary activity. Refugees from the Isle swarmed back to Courelli and were welcomed with open arms into both the culture and workforce. Courelli sent military support for the rebels, claiming to be motivated by "a brotherly love" between the Isle and the Republic, and "a desire to see death come to tyrants." However, scholars agree that the driving force behind Courellian interventionism was economic incentives from holding Avanua.
In 1895, a powerful earthquake struck Avanua and caused a tsunami that swept across portions of southern Courelli. In a single decade, the population of Avanua had declined from an estimated 73,000 to below 24,000, as result of emigration, disease, famine and disaster. This period is called the Great Misery.
The early 20th century was mostly peaceful for Courelli. It found itself in an economic upswing as a result of its shift to heavy manufacturing. Courelli was seen as a powerful and important neutral trading partner by nations around the world, concerning itself with business rather than international politics. This engendered increased nationalism and a wave of increased imperialism, sometimes considered the "last death spasms of the Courellian Empire."
Sparked by these sentiments, Governor Charles Springer pushed for what he called a "reconstruction of the traditional Courellian identity" through recapture of old territory. The first push was to reinvade and recapture Noirmarche. Initially successful, the Courellian invasion of Noirmarche in early 1909 faced little resistance. The Noirmarche forces were small and ill-prepared for the modern Courellian military force. The Noirmarche militias lost cohesive organization and Courelli was able to capture large swaths of Noirmarche, including the capital. Some of the Noirmarche government managed to escape with militia leaders to form an underground movement loyal to Noirmarche. This movement began a guerrilla war against the occupying Courellian forces. More suited to the traditional combat of the 1800s, the Courellian army was not ready for these tactics, and lost ground quickly. The underground movement recaptured many cities, but the largest shift in the war came at sea. The last remnants of the Noirmarche navy got a major windfall when they caught much of the Courellian navy at harbor. Blocking escape, the two ships unloaded upon the Courellian forces and sunk many ships, leading to a ceasefire and surrender negotiations. The terms were generous to the Courellians, with the Noirmarche knowing that Courelli still had the advantage if the fighting resumed. Noirmarche allowed them to pack up and leave.
Embarrassed by the loss to "underequipped colonials," the National Assembly ordered Courellian forces withdrawn, and removed Governor Springer from power due to the incident – the first time in Courellian history where the National Assembly took such a step.
Sparked by the unequal treatment soldiers of color faced upon returning home from the invasion, the time following the war was one of discontent. Non-white soldiers had fought side-by-side with white soldiers, equal on the battlefield, but returned home to find their rights limited by a white aristocracy, with a disproportionate black population in indentured servitude, workhouses or debtor's prisons as a result. This discontent erupted in 1920, as race riots began throughout Leoncavallo. In 1921, the National Assembly passed the Racial Equality Act, giving people of color in Courelli the same rights as white citizens.
A powder keg had already been lit. Hateful of the aristocracy, a growing group of dissenters were inspired by the Workers' Revolution in the North American Republics. In 1928, the Worker's Party of Courelli attempted an armed revolt, which lasted six months before ending in the dissolution of the party. This revolt saw extreme violence on both sides, to an extent not seen in more than a century on the Courellian mainland. It finally ended with the public execution of several WPA leaders on the steps of the National Assembly. The remnants of the party began an intellectual, anti-aristocratic movement more in line with Courellian cultural tradition.
Unrest in Hirematia
However, trouble was brewing in neighboring Hirematia. In the early 20th century, major reforms were made: women could now vote and hold office, workers gained protections, and the upper classes were losing a grip on the Hirematiyaale economy. After the Workers' Party won a second term in office, the Conservative opposition and various industrial capitalists cooperated with the military to oust the government and enact military rule.
Beginning in early March 1949, fascist militias were deployed by industry magnates to break strikes at factories across Hirematia. Beginning in early June 1949, these militias began to attack Workers' Party politicians and advocates. On 28 October 1949, these fascist militias, heeding calls from prominent capitalists and Conservative leaders, led an insurrection. When fascist demonstrators and paramilitaries entered Rumekota, government forces were taken by surprise and quickly overwhelmed. On the following day, 29 October 1949, Parliament was officially disbanded, thereby transferring political power to the fascists without immediate armed conflict.
Over the coming years, there arose a massive resistance to fascist rule, and by 1950, the country plunged into civil war. Both sides used scorched earth warfare and plunged the nation into a famine, but, by 1953, the fascist government had largely suppressed domestic resistance. In 1954, with order restored domestically, Hirematia turned its attention outward: in the following several years, Hirematia would launch invasions of Avanua (1955), Biscuitopolis (1956), and various other surrounding territories. However, by 1957, an international antifascist coalition, Socialist and Liberal United Front against Fascism, had formed to counter this growing threat to world peace. In 1961, after years of brutal conflict, the coalition began to liberate the Hirematia from fascist rule, and by February 1963 had forced the fascists to surrender unconditionally. In the months and years to come, this wartime coalition solidified into a peace-seeking international body, the Social Liberal Union. With SLU support, a Provisional Government of Hirematia was established, and a new constitution for the war-torn country was created. In the new courts of the SLU, the leaders of the Hirematiyaale fascist regime were convicted of various war crimes, and many of them executed.
The post-war boom created a general increase in personal wealth, which brought with it a never-before-seen luxury commodities market. Televisions became widely available and adopted. Courelli became a regional leader for television production, development and broadcast. Television news and journalism became a major facet of Courelli's culture and foreign policy. Music, advertising, and the already successful film market all surged in response to the increased interest in television through the 50s and 60s. The interest in manufacturing and industry, combined with the accompanying growth in an early electronics market of the era, flourished into Courellian futurism: the obsessive need for technological and artistic development into futuristic fields. This boom in technology and industry created large demand for workers, and as such, women began to find their place outside of the home, with many women working in the engineering, design, and manufacturing industries. At the same time, science fiction and speculative fiction became popular genres, representing an optimistic view of the future and the possibilities of technology.
The seemingly-limitless potential for growth of the Courelli economy came to a peak in the early 1970s. Property values had sky-rocketed and the value of Courelli products had grown massively and, arguably, unsustainably. In 1972, the bubble popped. After 30 years of expansive growth, the property bubble collapsed, causing sudden and many losses across the Courellian economy. Market values of Courellian goods dropped, and with them opportunities for investment diminished. International shareholders and domestic investors began pulling their support of Courellian assets and currency values dropped. Unfortunately, the Courellian government was so committed to their sentiments of an free market that they refused to take proactive measures to limit the effects of recession. Instead, they assumed that the market would level out and correct itself. However, decreased confidence in the market caused it to collapse further. Currency rates plummeted, and by 1974, the recession had settled into a depression. Poverty increased and many of the gains created over the last 40 years were lost. Infrastructure stagnated and many businesses closed their doors. The depression lasted three years, while the government scrambled to adjust its economic policy to fix the problem. While the economy began to bounce back in 1978, the damage had already begun. Public trust in the government was at an all-time low, and the Fascist movement within the military had garnered a powerful foothold.
Coup and civil war
In the early hours of 12 November 1980, a large group of Courellian Army soldiers and officers, led by General Justin Thatch, launched a violent coup d'état against the Republic of Courelli. Beginning in the Magnani, the capital of Albano province, the group stormed government buildings, quickly overwhelming the sparsely-defended capital of the rural province. That evening, from the Albano Provincial Executive Chamber, General Thatch delivered a televised address declaring the formation of the New Atlian Republic Atlian: Nuova Repubblica Atliana, which would, according to Thatch, "free our country from the degenerate, corrupt socialists who are destroying the country our forefathers built for us." After the address, a crowd of angry citizens gathered in the streets of Magnani to demonstrate against this takeover; NRA forces responded with indiscriminate gunfire, leaving 27 dead and 109 injured.
In the following days, the NRA would institute martial law in Albano, while the Courellian government set up fortifications in key positions on the provincial border of Albano. From these strategic positions, the Courellian Army executed covert operations to evacuate key military and civilian personnel from the province. Though initially successful, the evacuation effort came to a swift halt after three trucks smuggling civilian Courellian government staff were destroyed by an explosive device outside of Magnani, killing all aboard. Reassessing its strategy, the Courellian government began a series of targeted airstrikes on Courellian military facilities and civilian infrastructure in Albano, seeking to deprive the NRA of valuable strategic resources. By 1 December 1980, the hostilities had erupted into full-blown war.
The NRA found their strongest foothold in the northeast, particularly in the area around the city of Falceri. Over the first few months of the war, they focused on digging into their defensive areas. The heaviest combat at that time occurred along the south-east coast, where NRA holdings were weakest. It seemed as if Courellian forces would easily push back the NRA, and end the war before it started. This changed with the NRA capture of a Courellian naval base at Picci. This gave the NRA a foothold to push east along the coast, forcing back Courellian forces.
By late 1981, the NRA had moved from the defensive to the offensive, and began pushing east. In the spring of 1983, they reached Leoncavallo. While most government business had moved to Monte Gabrieli due to the threat of attack, some politicians remained in Leoncavallo. On May 19th, 1983, NRA forces stormed the National Assembly and captured twelve politicians, who they beheaded on the steps of the National Assembly. This became one of the most infamous moments of the war. At the same time, the Courellian Empire officially came to an end. The burdens of the war and increased nationalism in TBA forced Courelli to release the last of its holdings.
By this point, both sides had begun to slip into more and more desperate action. Human rights abuses and war crimes were commonplace, including abuse of civilians and POWs. NRA momentum had slowed into 1983, and as the stalemate grew more entrenched, so too did the continued escalation of violence. The 101 East-West Highway between Leoncavallo and Monte Gabrieli became known as the Highway of Blood, with 90% of the war's most deadly conflict occurring within 20 miles on either side of the highway. Journalist Wesley Philler, with The Courelli Courier, captured gruesome photos of soldiers being hung from the bridge.
This stalemate continued for two years, until late 1984. At this point, NRA forces mobilized a mass offensive and captured three nuclear missile silos on the southern coast. NRA forces then threatened to bomb Bassano and Monte Gabrieli if Courellian forces refused to surrender. Courelli, in turn, threatened nuclear retaliation on the NRA-held populations of Picci and Falceri. Only the intervention of fate prevented nuclear catastrophe.
On 12 January 1985, General Thatch was found dead in his living quarters, along with his 2 mistresses, all of whom died of drug overdoses. Without their boisterous leader, the NRA movement fragmented into various local cells, many of which were led by, as historian Alberto Écci recounts, "unprincipled grifters concerned only with their own personal rise to fame." With the NRA movement reduced to infighting, Courellian military and law enforcement authorities spent the following months breaking up the remaining militant cells, and, on 5 November 1985, Courellian Governor Augustus Pero announced that the Republic was once again at peace.
Turn of the millennium
As a result of the coup, anti-nuclear and anti-military sentiment grew. The government, still reeling from the war, could not bring themselves to demilitarize completely, but saw the need to cut their nuclear stockpiles. Over the next five years, Courelli completely disarmed their nuclear program and began rebuilding their infrastructure, which had been delayed by the 1970s depression and damaged by the coup. The nation soon became extreme proponents of global nuclear disarmament.
It was clear to all that massive overhauls would have to be done to the economic system if Courelli was to pull itself from the depths. Thankfully, Governor Pero was as effective an economist as he was a diplomat. Between 1985 and 1990, he began implementing policies that increased manufacturing and construction jobs, and began opening trade with foreign nations. While the Courellian economy initially took a hit due to decreased revenue from lowered tariffs, by 1990, the economy had begun righting itself.
Courelli was swift to grab onto the trends of the information era. The government pushed for massive expansion of modern technology, and huge projects were put in place to overhaul Leoncavallo from the ground-up. In a reflection of its time in after the coup, the Courellian economy exploded, rapidly increasing through the ‘90s and into the early 2000s to resemble its glory days.
The ‘90s and 2000s were a time of economic and foreign policy adjustment. Courellian neutrality became paramount to the people, who did not wish to see the nation thrown into wars. Governor Jean Paul Charbonnier, the Green Party's first – and so far only – Governor, ruled on a platform of respect for sovereignty, refusing to become involved in matters not seen to directly involve Courelli or its foreign trade concerns.
1998 saw a massive scandal involving then-Speaker of the National Assembly Marcus Vitta, who was caught embezzling National Assembly appropriation funds under the cover of a government charity. The government used the case to invoke severe and stringent oversight policies on the National Assembly, which would reduce their public powers significantly.
In 2000, a wave of gun-based crimes in Leoncavallo led to severe overhaul of gun ownership laws. The crimes, which were mostly muggings-gone-wrong in various parks and public spaces of the capital, led to a six year debate on public safety measures and privacy concerns, which would lead to the creation of the Bastion Network in 2005. The Bastion Network was a city-wide CCTV network created and monitored by Bastion Technologies. The implementation of the system would see a marked decrease in crime throughout the city. However, stringent regulatory and bureaucratic laws meant that the system's effectiveness at actually preventing crime were severely limited.
in 2012 CE, a tsunami struck Avanua, which brought extensive destruction to the island. The National Assembly authorized relief aid and troops, which, for a time, eased tensions between the natives of Avanua and the Courellian mainland. Later that same year, Courelli released blacklisted documents that revealed its complicity with various illicit activities in Ramelia during the 1970s and 1980s. At the same time, terror attacks would become more prevalent internationally, and the government would expand security measures. Most obvious amongst these was CIS, the Courellian Identification System, a biometric ID and civilian identification card system which allowed users access to government services like public healthcare and public transport.
In the 2015 election, The incumbent Liberal Party sustained major losses, while the United Left Party would see strong degrees of success across the nation. A new Governor, Joshua Thomas, was elected, and under his rule, Courelli entered into a time more prosperous than ever before.