Courellian Culture

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The culture of the Republic of Courelli is primarily of western Eredean origin, but is influenced by broad array of foreign cultures over its long history. The Eredean roots of Courelli originate in the Paleolithic Age with the Tritian people – the first known inhabitants of the Atlian peninsula. The peninsula was home to many well-known and influential civilizations, including the Conselians, Lorenians, and Norians, which flourished before the emergence of the first major regional power, the Kingdom of Atlia, which conquered and incorporated them. For more than 2,000 years, the Atlian peninsula experienced large migrations, invasions, and other sociopolitical changes which helped shape the developing culture into a powerhouse of growth and innovation in western Erede and across the globe.

The country boasts several world-famous cities. Leoncavallo, the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Atlia and current capital of the Republic of Courelli, is an artistic, cultural and cinematographic center of great renown. Aleotti is the seat of the Holy Dalinist Church, which has wielded immense worldwide influence for centuries and facilitated the spread of Dalinism and its development into a major world religion. Other important cities include Falceri, the former capital of the great merchant civilization Conselia, and the industrial and financial capital of Courelli to this day.

The famous elements of Courellian culture are its art, music, style, and iconic food. Courellian culture includes both conservative and liberal elements, scientific and religious competitiveness, political structures, risk taking and free expression, materialist and moral elements. Despite certain consistent ideological principles, Courellian culture has a variety of expressions due to its geographical scale and demographic diversity.

Throughout the country's history, certain subcultures have dominated certain neighborhoods, only partially melded with the broader culture. Due to the extent of Courellian culture, there are many integrated but unique social subcultures within Courelli, some not tied to any particular geography. The cultural affiliations an individual in Courelli may have commonly depend on social class, political orientation and a multitude of demographic characteristics such as religious background, occupation, and ethnic group membership.

Architecture

Architectural ruins from antiquity throughout Courelli testify to the greatness of cultures past. The history of architecture in Courelli is one that begins with the ancient styles of the Atlians and Norians, progressing to Milonian, then to the revival of the classical Atlian style in the 15th through 17th centuries CE.

The most well-preserved burial cists from the Bronze Age, located near Falceri.

The earliest known examples of architecture on the Atlian peninsula are the megalithic tombs of the Neolithic Age. The Neolithic henges of Cavalli are stand-out examples. The structure appears to be portraying an annual calendar, but the reason for the massive size is unknown with any certainty. Theories include agriculture, ceremonial use, and interpreting the cosmos.

Numerous examples of Bronze and Iron Age architecture can be seen in Courelli. Megalithic burial monuments – either individual barrows or occasionally cists – are one form. Another is the defensive earthworks known as hillforts, as can be seen at Paisello Ruins. Archaeological evidence suggests that Iron Age domestic architecture had a tendency towards circular dwellings, known as roundhouses.

The oldest surviving Dalinist church from the First Kingdom, located near Bassano.

The Early First Kingdom brought the construction of the first large-scale buildings in Atlia, but very little survives above ground besides fortifications. These include sections of the Eastern Wall, and coastal forts such as at Peri and Dallapiccola, which have survived through incorporation into later castles. In most cases, only foundations, floors and the bases of walls attest to the structure of former buildings.

Architecture of the Late First Kingdom exists only in the form of churches, the only structures commonly built in stone apart from fortifications. The earliest examples date from the 3rd century, notably at Monte Gabrieli. These churches are typically high and narrow and consist of a nave and a narrower chancel. Some feature porticus (projecting chambers) to the west or to the east. The most common form of external decoration are lesenes (thin vertical or horizontal strips of projecting stone). This style was common into the Second Kingdom.

A recreation of a 10th century cruck house, located on the Courellian Historical Preserve, an open-world history exhibit located near Leoncavallo.

Little survives of the vernacular architecture of the Second Kingdom due to the use of perishable materials. Most domestic buildings were built on timber frames; roofs were typically covered with thatch or wooden shingles. Also around the 9th century, the cruck frame was introduced, increasing the size of timber framed vernacular buildings. Typically, houses of this period were based around a great hall open from floor to roof. Buildings surviving from this period include moated manor houses.

The Divine Cathedral of the Great Prophet, located in Aleotti, MG.

The greatest flowering of Courellian architecture took place during the 15th through 17th centuries CE. Perhaps the greatest achievement of this time was the construction of the in Aleotti, originally constructed in the early 15th century. During that same period, it became customary for students of architecture to travel across Courelli to study the ancient ruins and buildings as an essential part of their education. This period produced several outstanding Courellian architects, who to this day are especially known for their work on churches and universities.

Since the 1930s, various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places. Common themes of modern architecture include: the notion that "Form follows function", meaning that the result of design should derive directly from its purpose; the related concept of "Truth to materials", meaning that the true nature or natural appearance of a material ought to be seen, rather than concealed or altered to represent something else – particularly in International Style modernism, a visual emphasis on horizontal and vertical lines.

Cinema

The Courellian film industry was born between 1903 and 1908, and has blossomed into a massive industry, both in export and import. The top Courellian film genres are historical dramas, philosophical films, and documentaries. Since its inception, Courellian film has been marked by a central tenet of experimentation and artistry. Film has been the media where Courellian identity has most wholly coalesced into a single vision.

Courelli is a birthplace of Art Cinema, – a style of film aimed at a niche market rather than a mass market audience, intended to be a serious, artistic work, which is often experimental and not designed for mass appeal, and is made primarily for aesthetic reasons rather than commercial profit – and the stylistic aspect of film has been the most important factor in the history of Courellian film. In the early decades of the 20th century, artistic and epic films were made as adaptations of books or stage plays. Courellian filmmakers were utilizing complex set designs, lavish costumes, and record budgets, to produce pioneering films.

After a period of decline in the 1920s and early 1930s, the Courellian film industry was revitalized in the late 1930s with the arrival of sound film. A renaissance of Courellian filmmaking developed in the 1940s. At that time, a new generation of directors emerged. These directors often made movies that focused on society and its problems, which resulted in the emergence of the first important Courellian film movement, Neorealism. Neorealist directors were concerned primarily with portraying the daily life of ordinary people. They mainly filmed on location rather than on a studio set, and they used mostly nonprofessional actors. These qualities gave Neorealist films a gritty, almost documentary look.

Cuisine

A traditional Courellian dish.
A vineyard in the Province of Maginardo.

Courellian cuisine consists of the ingredients, recipes and methods of preparation used by the people of the Atlian peninsula, and later spread around via Courelli's extensive trade ventures. Courellian cuisine is generally characterized by its simplicity, with many dishes based around the three core elements of the cuisine and the products they yield: olives, yielding olive oil; wheat, yielding bread and pasta; and grapes, yielding wine. Courellian cooks rely chiefly on the quality of the ingredients rather than on elaborate preparation. Ingredients and dishes vary by region, especially between the east and west of Courelli. Many dishes that were once regional have proliferated with variations throughout the country. Many different types of bread and pasta were made, and there was a variation in cooking techniques and preparation. Courellian dishes usually focus on savory flavors over sweet flavors. When Courellians do eat sweets, they prefer fruit-based and semi-sour tastes to intense sugars.

Key ingredients in Courellian cuisine are as follows:

  • Olives and olive-derived products, such as olive oil
  • Grapes and grape-derived products, such as wine
  • Wheat-derived products, such as bread and pasta
  • Aromatic herbs, especially rosemary, wild marjoram, basil, and garlic
  • Peppers, including pimentos
  • Fruits and vegetables, including tomatoes, melons, figs, and eggplants
  • Meats, including lamb and pork
  • Seafood native to the area
  • Cheese, including Asiago, Gorgonzola, and Parmigiano

Education

Education in Courelli is compulsory from 6 to 16 years of age, and is divided into four stages: primary school, lower secondary school, and upper secondary school. Upon completion of upper secondary school, students may choose to enroll in university, which offers specialized training in a specific course of study. Primary and secondary education are state-run and free in Courelli, and are available to children of all nationalities who reside in the Republic.

In Courelli, the public school system has existed since 1889, when the National Assembly passed the Public Education Act. The Act mandated educational responsibilities for a new Directorate of Education, and made primary education compulsory, with the goal of increasing literacy. However, even with compulsory education, rural children often were not sent to school, and the illiteracy rate (which was nearly 80% in 1861) took more than four decades to halve.

The next important law concerning the Courellian education system was the Continuing Education Act, passed by the National Assembly in 1923. The compulsory age of education was raised to 16 years, and the system itself was restructured to meet the demands of the early 20th century: after the first five years of primary education, students could choose one of two pathways: "advanced study," which would give further access to advanced academic education, or "work training," which was intended to give a quick entry into the workforce. In 1964, however, the "work training" pathway was abolished, and all children up to 16 years of age had to follow a single program, encompassing primary and secondary school.

Level Duration Certificate awarded
Pre-school 3 years (age 3 to 6) None
Primary 5 years (age 6 to 11) Primary Completion Certificate
Lower Secondary 3 years (age 11 to 14) Lower Secondary Completion Certificate
Upper Secondary 4 years (age 14 to 18; compulsory until 16) Upper Secondary Completion Certificate
Higher Education Undergraduate 3 years Bachelor's degree
Graduate 2 years Master's degree
Professional 3 to 6 years, depending on course of study Doctoral degree

Primary education

Primary school, is commonly preceded by three years of non-compulsory nursery school. Primary school lasts five years, and the educational curriculum is the same for all students: a basic education in Atlian, Gibberish, mathematics, natural sciences, history, geography, social studies, and physical education. Some schools also have optional electives, such as Hirematiyaale or Koiho, musical arts, and visual arts.

Secondary education

Higher education

Courelli has a large and international network of public or state-affiliated universities. State-run universities constitute the majority of higher education institutions in Courelli, and are managed by the Directorate of Education.

Courelli hosts a broad variety of universities, colleges and academies. Founded in 1088, the University of TBA is likely one of the oldest in the world. Falceri's TBA has been ranked among the top 10 best business schools in the world. Other top universities are the TBA in TBA, the TBA in TBA, the TBA in TBA, and the University of TBA.

Name Founded City Province Control Type
Archon Francesco IV National Seminary 1828 Leoncavallo EN Private Theological college
Arcuri Academy of Art 1954 Arcuri SL Private Special focus institution
Beckinridge College of Liberal Arts 1891 Volta EN Private Baccalaureate college
Black Hill College 1671 Paisello SL Private Baccalaureate college
Cavalli Institute of Ecology 2002 Cavalli GR Private Special focus institution
Clarke University 1643 Picci GR Public Research university
Énaudi Institute of Technology 2011 Palermo EN Private Special focus institution
Fitzgerald University 1999 Castiglione EN Public Research university
Malikaḷjanggama School of Ṭeḷḷaṇgganayaṃṃa
(iḍḍaṬeḷḷaṇgganayaṃṃa iḍḍaMalikaḷjanggama Sanggama)
1389 Terragni HI Private Research university
Jacobi College 1592 Aleotti EN Private Baccalaureate college
King's College 1409 Leoncavallo EN Private Baccalaureate college
King's College (Giannini) 1523 Giannini CS Private Baccalaureate college
King's College (Scelsi) 1590 Scelsi HI Private Baccalaureate college
Kirkham Naval Academy 1902 Bassano SL Public Associates college
Monteverdi Military Institute 1742 Dallapiccola MV Public Associates college
Panicucci Community College 1972 Panicucci MV Public Associates College
Port Gray University 1522 Leoncavallo EN Public Research university
San Micheli State University 1910 San Micheli GR Public Research university
Settimio Valley Conservatory 1897 Settimio MV Private Conservatory
Sewell Academy of Statecraft and Diplomacy 1812 Endrizzi MV Private Special focus institution
St. Alphaeus College 1756 Boito CS Private Baccalaureate college
St. Mégara University 1731 Pugliesi MV Private Baccalaureate college
Totti University 1901 Totti SL Public Research university
University of Avanua 1922 Cilea HI Public Research university
University of Monteverdi 1889 Falceri MV Public Research university
University of Monteverdi at Aureli 1930 Aureli MV Public Research university
University of West Giordano 1947 Lurano GR Public Research university
Valentinian Divinity School 1371 Monte Gabrieli CS Private Theological college
William J. Bell School of Law 1865 Cimarosa CS Private Special focus institution

Literature

Literature is a well respected art form in Courelli. The literary style of Romanticism flourishes, and philosophy is considered a valuable area of study. Amongst common people, satire is a popular form. Famous writers in Courelli include NAME, NAME, and NAME.

The most popular subjects for Courellian writers include philosophy, political discourse, and introspective poetry. History is commonly inspected as a mirror to the modern day. Dark comedy and modernized takes on traditional folktales and myths are popular. Retellings of classical mythology through an urban setting are common, especially stories with themes of destiny.

Historical drama pieces and pop-lit are frequent sellers to the younger generation. The science fiction genre exploded in the late 1970s and continues to flourish into the present day.

Best-Selling Books (2019)
Rank Title Author Genre Synopsis
1 TBA TBA TBA TBA
2 TBA TBA TBA TBA
3 TBA TBA TBA TBA
4 TBA TBA TBA TBA
5 TBA TBA TBA TBA
6 TBA TBA TBA TBA
7 TBA TBA TBA TBA
8 TBA TBA TBA TBA
9 TBA TBA TBA TBA
10 TBA TBA TBA TBA

Mass media

Magazines

Newspapers

National

Regional and local

Radio

Television

This is a list of nationally-broadcast TV stations available on digital terrestrial, satellite, cable systems in Courelli. Foreign channels are also available, such as TBA, TBA, TBA, TBA, etc.

Museums and galleries

The exterior of the National Museum of History in Leoncavallo.

There are many museums in Courelli, but perhaps the most notable is Leoncavallo's National Museum of History, which has a collection of more than five million objects from around the world. The most senior art gallery is the Gallery of Port Gray, which houses a collection of Courellian and international art – over 2,300 pieces of art, dating from 600 BCE to the present day.

Courelli's imperial heritage means that the National Museum of History houses many items from around the region that were gathered during colonization, and criticism has been leveled against the museum to return pieces to their countries of origin, particularly those with deep cultural roots. The Museum has fought these criticisms for years, claiming that it has the finest curators in the world, and that other locations cannot yet be trusted to adequately and safely preserve these one-of-a-kind items.

Performing arts

Theater

Theater is an extremely important artform in Courelli. Plays and musicals are highly attended, especially in large urban centers. Popular playwrights often hold an exalted place in pop culture circles, equal to certain film directors or popular writers. Leoncavallo is a center for the theatre. Working as an actor on Fronte Street is an idealized occupation in popular media.

Music

Traditional folk music evolved from the Atlian culture and can trace its lineage back thousands of years. In the twentieth century, progressive rock, hard rock, glam rock, heavy metal, pop, indie rock, gothic rock, shoegazing, acid house, garage, trip hop, drum and bass, and dubstep made their way into Courellian culture.

Sport

Courelli has a long and successful history of sport. In several sports, both individual and team, Courelli has good representation and many successes. Association football is the most popular sport in Courelli, followed by cycling, fencing, and swimming. Sailing has had a modern revival, and rowing is popular in the nation's universities, boasting the worldwide success of the Port Gray University rowing team.

Participation by sport

Association football

Athletics

Basketball

Combat sports

Cricket

Cycling

Equestrian sports

Golf

Gymnastics

Lacrosse

Motorsports

Rugby

Skiing

Tennis

Volleyball

Water sports

Winter sports

Visual arts

Since ancient times, many peoples and cultures – including Atlians, Lorenians, and Norians in the center, west, and east, respectively – have inhabited the Atlian peninsula. The numerous rock drawings in northeast Énaudi are as old as 8,000 BCE, and there are rich remains of ancient art from thousands of tombs. Ancient Atlia finally emerged as the dominant power on the peninsula, and Atlian remains across Courelli are of extraordinary richness, from the grand Imperial monuments of Leoncavallo itself to the survival of exceptionally preserved ordinary buildings from centuries long past.

Visual arts in modern-day Courelli tend to be high-brow, sticking to Romantic and Impressionist styles. Landscapes, portraiture and depictions of historical events are all common subjects for art. The most famous painters of these styles of Courellian art are NAME, NAME, and NAME.

There is a growing trend towards modernism in the current art community of Courelli, with a focus on bold colors and a change towards more abstract pieces. Cubism and expressionism are common in these forms. Post-modernist pieces are also growing in popularity, as are street-art, body art and other urban art movements.

References