Courellian Constitution

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The Constitution of the Republic of Courelli is the supreme governing document of the Republic of Courelli. Initially implemented in 1689, its current form was adopted in 2017, and is the fourth constitution that the Republic has had.

Preamble

The Courellian People,

COGNIZANT of our liberty and national identity, and of our responsibility before history and humanity;

DEDICATED to the democratic, egalitarian ideals born of the War of Democratic Liberation of 1663 and of the Picci Conference of 1689;

DETERMINED to destroy all social ills and injustice, and to afford equal opportunities to every person, and to provide for the fullest development of individual rights and liberties in all domains of life, including political, economic, social, and cultural;

RESOLVED to elevate the quality of life for all people, and to contribute to the common prosperity of mankind;

ACCORDINGLY, through representatives assembled in the city of Leoncavallo, do hereby institute this Constitution, ordained and established on the twenty-sixth day of January in the year two thousand and seventeen.

Article I: On the Rights and Freedoms of All People

Section 1. Civil Rights

Clause 1. All people shall have the right to the liberty, dignity, and security of their person, and to their physical and mental integrity;

Clause 2. All people shall be free from discrimination based on the grounds of sex, race, color, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any other opinion, membership in a minority, property, birth, disability, age, or sexual orientation;

Clause 3. All people shall be free from torture and all other forms of cruel and unusual punishment and treatment, including slavery, servitude, and forced labor;

Clause 4. All people shall be free from collective expulsions, and from removals, expulsions, or extraditions to a State where there is a serious risk that they would be subjected to torture or other inhumane or degrading treatment or punishment;

Clause 5. All people shall be free from child labor, and from economic exploitation or abuse;

Clause 6. All people shall have the right to marry upon reaching adulthood, and to conduct their personal and family life as they see fit;

Clause 7. All people shall be free to move within the borders of this Republic, and to enter and leave those same borders, as they see fit;

Section 2. Political Rights

Clause 1. All people shall be free to think and express themselves, politically, socially, and religiously, and to peaceably assemble, and to associate with whomever they please;

Clause 2. All people shall have the right to universal suffrage beginning at the age of eighteen;

Clause 3. All people shall have the right to take part in the government of this Republic, both directly through public service, and indirectly through free, fair, and frequent elections;

Clause 4. All people shall have the right to the equal and due process of the law, and to fair, impartial, timely, and public hearings and judgement in all legal proceedings, to be informed of the charges against them and the reason for their arrest or detention, and to the presumption of innocence and the assistance of competent defense counsel;

Clause 5. All people shall be free from self-incrimination, and from being charged or tried for the same crime more than once after having been previously acquitted or convicted, from from ex post facto and corruption of blood or estate laws;

Clause 6. All people shall be free from military conscription;

Section 3. Economic Rights

Clause 1. All people shall have the right to seek employment, to work, to collective bargaining and action, to safe and healthy working conditions, to the reasonable limitation of working hours, to daily and weekly rest periods, to an annual period of paid leave, and to paid parental leave, as provided by law;

Clause 2. All people shall have the right to own, use, dispose of, and bequeath their lawfully acquired possessions, as regulated by law;

Clause 3. All people shall have the right to social security benefits and social services providing protection in cases such as maternity, illness, industrial accidents, inability to obtain or loss of housing, malnutrition, dependency, or old age, and in the case of loss of employment;

Clause 4. All people shall be free from being deprived of their possessions, except in the public interest and in the cases and under the conditions provided for by law;

Clause 5. All people shall have the right to primary and secondary education at public expense, and to further education as they see fit;

Clause 6. All people shall have the right to health care, and to benefit from medical treatment under emergency conditions;

Article II: On the Administration of the Republic, Generally

Section 1: Administrative Form

Clause 1. The Republic of Courelli is a unitary republic, formed by the inseparable union of several Provinces, namely:

  • Énaudi
  • Monteverdi
  • Salieri
  • Maginardo
  • Sovino
  • Giordano
  • Casella †
  • Perini
  • Fiorentino
  • Redenti
  • Vivari
  • Albano †
  • Barocci †
  • Lauri ‡
  • Orzi ‡


This Province joined the Republic after the Courellian acquisition of Lorenia in 1847 CE.
This Province joined the Republic after the Courellian acquisition of Avanua in 1932 CE.

Clause 2. The borders of these Provinces, and of any sub-provincial units, may be revised to ensure that each Province be of a size and capacity to perform its functions effectively. However, due regard shall be given to regional, historical, and cultural ties.

Section 2: Popular Mandate

All power is vested in, and consequently derived from, the people, that magistrates are their trustees and servants, and at all times amenable to them.

Government is, or ought to be, instituted for the common benefit, protection, and security of the people, nation, or community; of all the various modes and forms of government, that is best which is capable of producing the greatest degree of happiness and safety, and is most effectually secured against the danger of maladministration; and, whenever any government shall be found inadequate or contrary to these purposes, the people have an indubitable, inalienable, and indefeasible right to reform, alter, or abolish it, in such manner as shall be judged most conducive to the public good.

Section 3: Separation of Powers

Clause 1. The powers of the government of the Republic of Courelli shall be divided into three distinct branches, each of which shall be confided to a separate body of magistracy, to wit: those which are legislative, to one; those which are executive, to another; and those which are judicial, to another.

Clause 2. In the government of this Republic, except in the instances in this Constitution hereinafter expressly directed or permitted, the legislative shall never exercise the executive and judicial powers; the executive shall never exercise the legislative and judicial powers; the judicial shall never exercise the legislative and executive powers; to the end that it may be a government of laws and not of men.

Section 4. Courellian Nationality

Clause 1. Any person who has resided within this Republic for a period of at least one year shall be eligible to be considered a National of this Republic.

Clause 2. Furthermore, no person shall be deemed to have lost residence by reason of their absence while employed in the service of the Republic, nor while a student of any institution of learning, nor while receiving in-patient care at any medical institution, nor while imprisoned.

Clause 3. Registration of Nationals shall be conducted in each District by a Board of three reputable and suitable Nationals, styled "Registrars," who shall be residents of the District in which they serve, and who shall not hold any elective office during their term, appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of the National Assembly.

Clause 4. The Board of Registrars shall have power to examine, under oath or affirmation, all applicants for registration, and to take testimony touching the qualifications of such applicants. Any person who upon such examination makes any willfully false statement in reference to any material matter regarding the qualification of any applicant shall be guilty of perjury, and upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned for not less than one nor more than five years.

Clause 5. Any person to whom registration is denied shall have the right of appeal, within thirty days after such denial, by filing a petition in the District Court held for the District in which they seek to register, to have their qualifications as a National determined.

Clause 5. Any person who registers for another, or who registers more than once, and any Registrar who enters the name of any person on the registration list without such person having made application under oath on a form provided for that purpose, or who knowingly registers any person more than once, or who knowingly enters a name upon the registration list without any one of that name applying to register, shall be guilty of fraud, and upon conviction thereof shall be imprisoned for not less than one nor more than five years.

Section 5: Acquisition of Foreign Territory

Clause 1. In the event of the annexation of any foreign territory to this Republic, the National Assembly shall enact laws extending to the inhabitants of the acquired territory all the rights and privileges which may be required by this Constitution.

Clause 2. Should the Republic purchase such foreign territory, the National Assembly, with the approval of the Governor, shall be authorized to expend any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated, and, if necessary, to provide also for the issuance of bonds, to pay for the purchase of such foreign territory.

Section 4: Supremacy of National Law

In all cases, national laws, orders, and regulations shall take precedence over Provincial laws, orders, and regulations.

Section 6: Oath of Office

All Members of the National Assembly, and all officers, executive and judicial, before they enter upon the execution of the duties of their respective offices, shall take the following oath:

"I, …, hereby affirm that I will support and defend the Constitution of the Republic of Courelli, and uphold the will of the people, so long as I continue a resident thereof; and that I will faithfully and honestly discharge the duties of the office upon which I am about to enter, in earnest service of public interest and common good."

Article III: On the Establishment of a Representative Legislature

Section 1: Establishment

The legislative power of this Republic shall be vested in a National Assembly.

Section 2: Number of Seats and Apportionment Thereof

The National Assembly shall consist of a number of seats equal to the number of Provinces within the Republic multiplied by thirty†, to be apportioned among the several Provinces and Districts thereof in a manner proportional to their population.
This number has been amended several times as the Republic has grown. The original 1679 Constitution set this number at 5; a 1763 amendment expanded it to 10; an 1837 amendment further expanded it to 15; a 1917 amendment expanded it to 25; and a 1972 amendment set it at its current 30.

Section 3: Election and Term of Office

Clause 1. Members of the National Assembly shall be elected by the qualified electors every fifth year.

Clause 2. The terms of office of the Members of the National Assembly shall commence on first day of May in the year of their election, and expire after five years, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution.

Section 4: Qualifications

Clause 1. Members of the National Assembly shall be at least eighteen years of age at the time of their election.

Clause 2. Members of the National Assembly shall have been nationals of the Republic of Courelli at least five years, residents of their Province three years, and residents of their respective Districts for one year before their election, if such District shall have been so long established.

Clause 3. Members of the National Assembly shall reside in their respective Districts during their terms of office.

Clause 4. Furthermore, any Member of the National Assembly expelled for corruption shall not thereafter be eligible to serve in the National Assembly.

Section 5: Legislative Meetings

The National Assembly shall meet thrice each year, on the second Wednesday of every fourth month. Except as herein provided, no regular session of the National Assembly shall continue longer than sixty days, but with the concurrence of two-thirds of the Members.

The Governor may convene a special session of the National Assembly when, in their opinion, the interest of the Republic may require.

If at any time it should from any cause become impossible or dangerous for the National Assembly to meet or remain at the Capitol, the Governor may convene the National Assembly, or remove it after it has convened, in some other place, as necessity may require.

Section 6: The Speaker and Other Officers

Clause 1. The National Assembly, at the beginning of each regular session, and at such other times as may be necessary, shall elect one of its members as Speaker; and the Speaker shall hold their office until their successor is elected and qualified.

Clause 2. In case of the temporary incapacity of the Speaker, the National Assembly may elect one of its members to preside over the Assembly and to perform all the duties of the Speaker during the continuance of their incapacity.

Clause 3. Furthermore, the National Assembly shall prescribe by law the number and duties of the officers and employees of the Assembly, and shall choose its own officers as prescribed by law.

Section 7: Quorum

A majority of the National Assembly shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day and compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as the Assembly may provide.

A smaller number, not less than two-fifths of the elected Membership, may meet and may enact legislation if the Governor by proclamation declares that a quorum of the National Assembly cannot be convened because of enemy attack upon the Republic. Such legislation shall remain effective only until thirty days after a quorum of the National Assembly can be convened.

Section 8: Rules and Proceedings

The National Assembly shall have power to determine the rules of its proceedings and to punish its members and other persons, for contempt or disorderly behavior in its presence; to enforce obedience to its processes; to protect its members against violence, or offers of bribes or corrupt solicitation; and with the concurrence of two-thirds of the Assembly, to expel a member, but not a second time for the same offense; and the Assembly shall have all the powers necessary for the legislature of a free state.

Section 9: Recordkeeping

Clause 1. The National Assembly shall keep a record of its proceedings and cause the same to be published immediately after its adjournment, excepting such parts as, in its judgment, may require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of the Assembly on any question shall be entered into the record.

Clause 2. Any member of the Assembly shall have liberty to dissent from or protest against any act or resolution which they may think injurious to the public, or to an individual, and have the reason for their dissent entered into the record.

Section 10: Passage of Bills

No law shall be enacted except by bill. No bill shall become a law unless, prior to its passage:

It has been referred to a standing committee, considered by such committee in session, and reported;

The National Assembly has read the bill at length, and a vote has be taken by yeas and nays, and the names of the Members voting for and against shall be entered into the record, and majority of Members be recorded therein as voting in its favor, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution.

Section 11: Motions of No Confidence

The National Assembly may, in such a case where an executive or judicial officer has acted in a manner the Assembly deems to be unbecoming of their office, pass a motion declaring such an officer to have lost the confidence of the National Assembly.

In such cases, a vote shall be taken by yeas and nays, and the names of the Members voting for and against shall be entered into the record, and if two thirds of Members be recorded therein as voting in its favor, the motion shall be considered passed, and the officer shall immediately be removed from office.

Judgment in such cases shall not extend further than removal from office and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under the Republic. However, the officer removed shall, if necessary, be subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment according to law.

Section 12: Qualified Immunity

Members of the National Assembly shall, in all cases, except treason, felony, violation of their oath of office, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of the National Assembly, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate shall not be questioned in any other place.

Section 13: Conflicts of Interest

Clause 1. A Member of the National Assembly who has a personal or private interest in any measure or bill proposed or pending before the legislature, shall disclose the fact to the Assembly, and shall not vote thereon.

Clause 2. Furthermore, no Member of the National Assembly shall, at any time during their term of office, accept, either directly or indirectly, any fee, money, office, appointment, employment, reward, or thing of value, or of personal advantage, or the promise thereof, to lobby for or against any measure pending before the legislature, or to give or withhold their influence to secure the passage or defeat of any such measure.

Section 14: Special Sessions

When the National Assembly shall be convened in special session, there shall be no legislation upon subjects other than those designated in the proclamation of the Governor calling such session, except by a vote of two-thirds of the Assembly. Special sessions shall be limited to thirty days.

Section 15: Payment of Money out of the Treasury

Clause 1. No money shall be paid out of the Treasury except upon appropriations made by law, and on warrant drawn by the proper officer in pursuance thereof.

Clause 2. A regular statement and account of receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published annually, in such manner as may be by law directed.

Section 16: Public Attendance

The doors of the National Assembly shall be opened except on such occasions as, in the opinion of the Assembly, may require secrecy, but no person shall be admitted to the floor of the Assembly while it is in session, except members of the Assembly, the officers and employees thereof, the Governor, representatives of the press, and other persons to whom the Assembly, by unanimous vote, may extend the privileges of its floor.

Section 17: Periodic Revision of Laws

It shall be the duty of the National Assembly, at its first session after the ratification of this Constitution, and within every subsequent period of twelve years, to make provision by law for revising, digesting, and promulgating the public statutes of this Republic, of a general nature, both civil and criminal.

Article IV: On the Establishment of Executive Powers

Section 1: Establishment

Clause 1. The supreme executive power of this Republic shall be vested in a chief magistrate, who shall be styled "The Governor of the Republic of Courelli."

Clause 2. The Governor shall, from within the ranks of and with the support of the National Assembly, form a Government, which shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.

Section 2: Election and Term of Office

The Governor shall be elected by the qualified electors every fifth year.

The term of office of the Governor shall commence on first day of May in the year of their election, and expire after five years, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution.

The returns of every election for Governor shall be sealed up and transmitted by the returning officers to the National Assembly, which shall, during the first week of the session to which such returns shall be made, open, certify, and publish them; however, this duty shall be purely ministerial. The result of the election shall be ascertained and declared from the face of the returns without delay.

The person receiving a majority of votes for any one of said offices shall be declared duly elected; but if no person shall receive a majority of votes for such office, the National Assembly, without delay, shall choose the victor from the two persons who received the highest number of votes for said office.

Section 3: Qualifications

The Governor shall be at least twenty-eight years of age at the time of their election.

The Governor shall have been nationals of the Republic of Courelli at least ten years.

Furthermore, any previous government officer removed for corruption shall not thereafter be eligible to serve as Governor.

Section 4: The Cabinet

The Governor shall be assisted and advised by a Cabinet, comprised of the chief officers of all Executive Directorates, stylized, in most cases, as "Director" of their respective Directorate, namely:

  • The Foreign Affairs Directorate, which shall represent the Republic in all matters of diplomacy;
  • The Security Directorate, which shall ensure the security of the Republic;
  • The Finance Directorate, which shall regulate the fiscal system in accordance with law;
  • and any other Directorate which may be established by law.

These officers shall be appointed by the Governor, with the advice and consent of the National Assembly, and shall serve at the pleasure of the Governor.

No person shall be eligible to these offices unless they have been a national of the Republic of Courelli at least five years, and shall be at least twenty-five years old when appointed.

The Governor may require information in writing, under oath, from these officers, on any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, including the condition, management, and expenses of their respective Directorate.

Section 5: Incapacity and Succession

In case of the Governor's removal from office, death, resignation, impeachment, their absence from the Republic for more than twenty days, unsoundness of mind, or other incapacity, the power and authority of the office shall devolve in the order herein named:

  • the Director of Foreign Affairs;
  • the Speaker of the National Assembly;
  • the Director of Security;
  • the Director of Finance;
  • any other person so designated by the National Assembly.

If any of these officers be under any of the incapacities herein specified, the office of the Governor shall be administered in the order named by such of these officers as may be free from such incapacity.

Section 6: Foreign Affairs

The Governor shall be the chief diplomat of the Republic, and may make Treaties, provided two thirds of the National Assembly concur.

Section 7: Military Powers

The Governor shall be commander-in-chief of the armed forces of this Republic, and may call out the same to execute the laws, suppress insurrection, and repel invasion.

Section 8: Reprieves, Commutations, and Pardons

Clause 1. The Governor shall have power to remit fines and forfeitures, under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by law; and, after conviction, to grant reprieves, commutations of sentence, and pardons, as seems best for the public interest.

Clause 2. The Governor shall communicate to the National Assembly at each session every remission of fines and forfeitures, and every reprieve, commutation, or pardon, with the reasons therefor, stating the name and crime of the convict, the sentence, its date, and the date of reprieve, commutation, or pardon.

Article V: On the Establishment of an Impartial Judiciary

Section 1: Establishment

The judicial power of the Republic shall be vested in a High Court, Provincial Courts, District Courts, and other inferior courts as may be established by law.

Section 2: National Judicial Pool

Clause 1. A National Judicial Pool is hereby established, to which the Governor shall appoint, with the advice and consent of the National Assembly, a number of Members equal to the number of total seats on the High Court and all inferior courts within this Republic.

Clause 2. Members of the National Judicial Pool shall have been nationals of the Republic of Courelli five years next preceding their appointment, and shall be not less than twenty-five years of age, and shall be learned in the law.

Clause 3. Members of the National Judicial Pool shall serve until their death, retirement, or impeachment by the National Assembly.

Section 3: Court Composition

Clause 1. The High Court shall consist of one Chief Judge and six Associate Judges, each selected via sortition from the National Judicial Pool annually.

Clause 2. The Provincial Courts shall consist of one Chief Judge and four Associate Judges, each selected via sortition from the National Judicial Pool annually.

Clause 3. The District Courts shall consist of one Chief Judge and two Associate Judges, each selected via sortition from the National Judicial Pool annually.

Clause 4. Any inferior courts, as may be established by law, shall consist of a number of Judges as determined by law, each selected via sortition from the National Judicial Pool annually.

Section 4: Court Jurisdictions

Clause 1. Except in cases otherwise directed in this Constitution, the High Court shall have jurisdiction over all cases arising under this Constitution, an Act of the National Assembly, an executive action, or a treaty; cases affecting ambassadors, ministers and consuls of foreign countries; controversies to which the Government is a party; and controversies between Provinces. Furthermore, the High Court shall have appellate jurisdiction over decisions of the Provincial Courts, and shall have original jurisdiction over any controversies between two or more Provinces, or between residents of two or more Provinces. The High Court shall also have power to issue writs of injunction, habeas corpus, quo warranto, and such other remedial and original writs as may be necessary to give it a general superintendence and control of inferior jurisdictions.

Clause 2. Except in cases otherwise directed in this Constitution, the Provincial Courts shall have appellate jurisdiction over decisions of the District Courts. Furthermore, the Provincial Courts shall have original jurisdiction over any controversies between two or more Districts, or between residents of two or more Districts, within their respective Province.

Clause 3. Except in cases otherwise directed in this Constitution, the District Courts shall have original jurisdiction over controversies for the recovery of money and property, over controversies to recover possession of property or to remove tenants therefrom, and over such other actions and proceedings not within the exclusive jurisdiction of the High Court or Provincial Courts, as may be provided by law. Furthermore, District Courts shall be the original trial court for all crimes and other violations of law.

Section 5: Court Venues

Clause 1. The High Court shall be held at the seat of government of the Republic , but if that shall become dangerous from any cause, it may convene at or adjourn to another place.

Clause 2. A Provincial Court shall be held in each Province in the Republic, and shall be held at the seat of government of its respective Province, but if that shall become dangerous from any cause, it may convene at or adjourn to another place.

Clause 3. A District Court shall be held in each District in the Republic, and shall be held at the seat of government of its respective District, but if that shall become dangerous from any cause, it may convene at or adjourn to another place.

Section 6: Incapacity or Conflict of Interest

If in any case, civil or criminal, pending in any court, a judge shall, for any legal cause, be incapacitated or otherwise unable to try, hear, or render judgment in such case, the clerk of such court shall notify the National Judicial Pool, which shall expeditiously appoint a temporary judge to render judgment in the same manner and to the same effect as such incapacitated judge could have rendered.

Section 7: Public Audience

All proceedings of any Court within the Republic shall be public; however, in proceedings which are sensitive in nature , the court may, in its discretion, exclude from the courtroom all persons, except such as may be necessary in the conduct of the trial.

Section 8: Style of Processes

The style of all processes shall be "The Republic of Courelli," and all prosecutions shall be carried on in the name and by the authority of the same, and shall conclude "against the peace and dignity of the Republic."

Article VI: On Elections, Generally

Section 1: Eligibility and Qualifications

Clause 1. Every National of this Republic eighteen years of age or older, not laboring under any of the disqualifications named in this article, and possessing the qualifications required by it, shall be entitled to vote at any election by the people.

Clause 2. Any person whose right to vote shall be challenged for any legal cause before an election officer shall be required to swear or affirm that the matter of the challenge is untrue before their vote shall be received. Anyone who willfully swears or affirms falsely thereto shall be guilty of perjury, and upon conviction thereof shall be imprisoned for not less than one nor more than five years.

Section 2: Method of Voting

Clause 1. All elections by the people shall be held on the first Saturday of March in the year in which they are held, or, when the matter is sufficiently urgent, on such a day as appointed by the National Assembly, and shall be conducted by secret ballot.

Clause 2. The legislature may, by law, provide a manner in which Nationals who, on the occurrence of any election, may be absent from the District of their residence, or who may be unable to appear personally at the polling place because of illness or physical disability, may vote and for the return of their votes.

Section 3: Qualified Immunity

Nationals shall in all cases, except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at elections, or while going to or returning therefrom.

Article VII: On Miscellaneous Provisions

Section 1: Local Government

Effective local self-government is the fundamental objective of democracy. In furtherance thereof, local governments shall have the following rights, powers, privileges and immunities in addition to those granted by other provisions of this Constitution:

Clause 1. Every local government shall have a legislative body elected by the people thereof, which shall have power to adopt local laws not inconsistent with the provisions of this constitution or any general law.

Clause 2. All officers of every local government whose election or appointment is not provided for by this constitution shall be elected by the people of the local government, or of some division thereof, or appointed by such officers of the local government as may be provided by law.

Clause 3. No local government or any part of the territory thereof shall be annexed to another until the people, if any, of the territory proposed to be annexed shall have consented thereto by majority vote on a referendum.

Clause 4. Local governments shall have power to take by eminent domain private property within their boundaries for public use, but no more than is sufficient to provide for appropriate disposition or use of land or property which abuts on that necessary for such public use, and to sell or lease that not devoted to such use. The National Assembly may authorize and regulate the exercise of the power of eminent domain and excess condemnation by a local government outside its boundaries.

Section 2: Public Education

The National Assembly shall provide for the maintenance and support of a system of free common schools, wherein all the children of this Republic may be educated.

Section 3: Defense

The defense and protection of the Republic is an obligation of all people within her borders. The National Assembly shall provide for the discharge of this obligation and for the maintenance and regulation of armed forces comprised of volunteers.

Section 4: Environment and Conservation

The policy of the Republic shall be to conserve and protect its natural resources and scenic beauty and encourage the development and improvement of its agricultural lands for the production of food and other agricultural products.

The National Assembly, in implementing this policy, shall include adequate provision for the abatement of air and water pollution and of excessive and unnecessary noise, the protection of agricultural lands, wetlands and shorelines, and the development and regulation of water resources.

The National Assembly shall further provide for the acquisition of lands and waters, and the dedication of properties so acquired or now owned, which because of their natural beauty or geological, ecological or historical significance, shall be preserved and administered for the use and enjoyment of the people.

Section 5: Social Welfare

The aid, care and support of the needy are public concerns and shall be provided by the Republic and by its subdivisions, and in such manner and by such means as the National Assembly may from time to time determine.

Section 6: Public Health

The protection and promotion of the health of the inhabitants of the Republic are matters of public concern and provision therefor shall be made by the Republic and by its subdivisions and in such manner, and by such means as the National Assembly shall from time to time determine.

Article VIII: On the Procedure for Amending this Constitution

Section 1: Proposal

Amendments may be proposed to this Constitution by the National Assembly in the manner following:

Clause 1. The proposed amendments shall be read in the National Assembly, and, if three-fifths of all the members elected to that Assembly shall vote in favor thereof, the National Assembly shall order a referendum by the qualified electors of the Republic upon such proposed amendments, to be held on such a day as appointed by the National Assembly.

Clause 2. Notice of such election, together with the proposed amendments, shall be given by proclamation of the Governor, which shall be published in every Province in such manner as the National Assembly shall direct, for at least eight successive weeks next preceding the day appointed for such election.

Clause 3. On the day so appointed a referendum shall be held upon the proposed amendments. Officers for such a referendum shall be appointed; and the referendum shall be held in all things in accordance with the law governing elections.

Clause 4. In all referenda upon such proposed amendments, the votes cast shall be canvassed, tabulated, and returns thereof be made to the National Assembly, and counted, in the same manner as in elections for government officers; and if it shall thereupon appear that a majority of the qualified electors who voted at such a referendum upon the proposed amendments voted in favor of the same, such amendments shall be valid to all intents and purposes as parts of this Constitution.

Clause 5. The result of such a referendum shall be made known by proclamation of the Governor.

Section 2: Structure of Referendum Ballots

Clause 1. Upon the ballots used at all referenda provided for in this Article, the substance or subject matter of each proposed amendment shall be so printed that the nature thereof shall be clearly indicated.

Clause 2. Following each proposed amendment on the ballot shall be printed the word "Yes" and immediately under that shall be printed the word "No."

Clause 3. The choice of the elector shall be indicated by a cross mark made by their or under their direction, opposite the word expressing their desire, and no amendment shall be adopted unless it receives the affirmative vote of a majority of all the qualified electors who vote at such a referendum.

Article IX: On the Ratification of this Constitution

In order that no injury or inconvenience may arise from the alterations and amendments made by this Constitution to the existing Constitution of this Republic, and to carry this Constitution into effect, it is hereby ordained and declared:

Clause 1. That all laws in force at the ratification of this Constitution and not inconsistent therewith, shall remain in full force until altered or repealed by the National Assembly; and all rights, actions, prosecutions, claims, and contracts of the Republic, Provinces, Districts, municipalities, individuals, or bodies corporate, not inconsistent with this Constitution, shall continue to be valid.

Clause 2. That all the executive and judicial officers, and all other officers in this Republic, who were elected at the elections held in this Republic in the year two thousand and fifteen, or who have been appointed since that time, and all members of the present National Assembly, and all other officers holding office at the time of the ratification of this Constitution, shall, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, continue in office and exercise the duties thereof until their respective terms shall expire, as provided by the Constitution of eighteen hundred and seventy-five.

Addendum: Proclamation of Ratification

WHEREAS, it appears that, on the twenty-sixth day of January in the year two thousand and seventeen, at a convention held in Leoncavallo for the purpose of enacting a new Constitution of the Republic of Courelli, the whole number of votes cast "For Constitution" is one hundred and eight (108), and the whole number of votes cast "Against Constitution" is forty two (42);

AND WHEREAS, it is evident that the majority of votes have been cast in favor of this Constitution;

NOW, THEREFORE, I, Abigail Baker-Hill, by virtue of the power and authority in me vested as Chairwoman of this Convention, do declare that the said Constitution, so ratified, shall go into effect as the Constitution of the Republic of Courelli on Wednesday, the first day of February in the year two thousand and seventeen, and shall thereafter be binding and obligatory as such upon the people of this Republic.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the Seal of the Republic of Courelli to be affixed at the Capitol, in the city of Leoncavallo, this the twenty-seventh day of January in the year two thousand and seventeen.

SIGNED,
Abigail Baker-Hill, Chairwoman of the Convention
Eleanor McDavid, Convention Clerk

References