Courelli

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The Republic of
Courelli
Courelli Flag.png
12th World Assembly Delegate
In office
23 October 2017 – 15 July 2018
Preceded by Austerain
Succeeded by North American Republics
15th and 17th Minister of Domestic Affairs
In office
21 June 2017 – 13 September 2017
Delegate Austerain
Preceded by Freeland Newworldia
Succeeded by New Ireland and Wales
Incumbent
Assumed office
1 August 2018
Delegate North American Republics
Preceded by North American Republics (Elected)
Koiho (Interim)
Nation details
Founded 17 April 2017
(18 months ago)
 (2017-04-17)

History

The Bronze and Iron Age

The Bronze and Iron Age
Timeframe
c. 2500 BCE - c. 60 BCE
Significant Events
Bronze Age begins c. 2500 BCE
Iron Age begins c. 800 BCE
Hillfort construction boom c. 600 BCE
Dalinism begins to gain support c. 200 BCE

The earliest history of Courelli begins in the Bronze Age, around 2500 BCE on the Atlian Peninsula, with the first appearance of bronze objects in the archaeological record. Presumably, earlier human occupation of the peninsula existed, but as of yet little archaeological evidence has been found aside from certain tomb structures that provide little information on the nature of those cultures. Early signs of humans coincide with the appearance of the characteristic Atlian culture. The Atlian people focused on fishing and hunting. They remained highly isolated in their early history; in fact, they believed that there was nothing beyond their land. The Bronze Age Atlian culture is highly focused on the individual as opposed to communities, with signs of the culture primarily being focused on large tombs and burial mounds, suggesting the rise of increasingly powerful elites. Settlement became increasingly permanent and intensive.

The Iron Age is conventionally said to begin around 800 BCE. The overall picture of continuity suggests this was not accompanied by any substantial movement of population; evidence of life in this time suggests the development of the early forerunners of the later First Kingdom. On the whole, burials largely disappeared across Atlia, with the dead disposed of in a way which is archaeologically invisible. Cremation is widely cited as the most likely scenario, evidenced most famously by a structure known only as The Altar, a man-made structure thought to be a proto-crematorium. Atlian society is believed to have shifted its focus towards family and community during this time, evidenced by the rise in prevalence of medium to large residential structures called hillforts. Hillforts were known since the Late Bronze Age, but a huge number were constructed in the period 600–400 BCE, particularly in the North. After about 400 BCE, new hillforts largely ceased to be built and a large number cease to be regularly inhabited, while others become heavily occupied, suggesting a degree of regional centralization.

At around 200 BCE, a religion known as Dalinism started to gain support. While the exact dates of the life of the religion's prophet, Dalin, are unknown, he was believed to have resided near present-day Leoncavallo. The development of local written language begins primarily with written religious texts, including prototypical forms of the current Dalinian Scrolls and certain addendum texts. Folk religions would continue to oppose Dalinism for centuries following, forming the center of some of the greatest Atlian conflicts of the Medieval era.

The First Kingdom

The First Kingdom
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The earliest examples of written Atlian occur around 60 BCE, and coincide with the beginning of the First Kingdom. Jaspus, who would become the first King of the Atlian Kingdom, began gathering together local tribes under his banner. He began his campaigns in a location near the mouth of the Great River, close to modern Leoncavallo, where he conquered his brother's hillfort with help from two local tribal chiefs, Godan and Ruthgar.

Following his brother's death, he and his allies turned south and raided villages along the coast until they reached what would become Aleotti, where they faced the armies of Unik the Bald in 12 BCE. Defeating their enemies through clever tactics, such as utilizing the hilly landscape and morning fog to hide their numbers, Jaspus' army routed the army of Unik. Over the next four years, the territory was consolidated and King Jaspus led a campaign into the east, where he subjugated two more tribes. By 3 CE the border of the Atlian Kingdom had been pushed back as far as Black Hill. By 16 CE, it covered all of Atlia east of Aleotti. King Jaspus died in 17 CE, leaving the throne and crown to his son Bengar.

At the same time, the Dalinian faith saw its first major schism. Focused on questions related to who was the foremost of the Intercessors, three major groups arose between 10 BCE and 5 BCE. The first was centered on the writings of Pamius, and became known as the Pamisians. The Pamisians believed that, while Dalin was the Great Prophet, in heaven all intercessors were considered equal, and therefore none should take precedence in worship. The second group were the Presciites, who believed that St. Gil, who Dalin described as "first of God's chosen", and the earliest Intercessor mentioned in the Dalinian Scrolls, was also the highest in precedence in heaven. They pointed to the "first of God's chosen" passage not as a description of chronology, but of favor. The final group was the Prophescians, who believed that Dalin, as the Great Prophet and Deliverer of the Word, was the highest in God's favor. By this point in history, Bengar had converted to Dalinism, and the Church was a central power in the Atlian Kingdom.

As debates grew more and more expansive and bitter, the divide threatened to tear the Church apart, and with it the fledgling Kingdom. As such, Bengar turned to the Archon of the Church to oversee the matter. However, the Archon was a friend of Jacobi, the de facto leader of the Prophescians. While the Archon called a council of the Church, the debate was clearly slanted in favor of the Prophescians. Half the Presciite bishops were barred from entering the debate. As such, the Prophescian doctrine was widely accepted as Church canon. The Pamisians managed to retain their positions, but the Presciites were excommunicated from the Church.

The Presciites were angered by this; they took to arms in 20 CE. Bengar, at the behest of the Archon, turned his armies upon them and the Presciite Rebellion was quelled. So influential was this uprising, that most versions of the Dalinian Scrolls have the Book of Gil removed and any mention of him stricken or demonized. This left two main branches of the faith in terms of belief and doctrine: the Pamisians and the Prophescians.

Following his father's death, Bengar continued the Atlian conquest. By 35 CE, the entirety of the land was unified under the Atlian crown. Written records at this time are focused on accurate genealogies and death records, suggesting a cultural focus on birthrights. Legal structures for succession law begin appearing around 55 CE, further lending credence to this theory.

The Atlian Kingdom was marked by increasing regional centralization and rapid overhauls in technology and science. However, the Atlian Kingdom was doomed to fall in 192 AD, as invaders from Jaenis Isle pushed south; first taking over several northern villages, but eventually reaching the Atlian heartland. While the Atlian forces repelled the invaders, the Jaenisians had brought with them the Red Fever, a plague to which the Atlians had no resistance. The ensuing spread of pestilence caused centralization to break apart as more and more people moved back to the countryside to avoid the centers of plague. This caused revolts amongst those who remained, eventually leading to the dissolution of the Atlian Kingdom as population numbers dwindled.

The Inter-Kingdom Age

The Inter-Kingdom Age
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The next four hundred years were marked by a slow rebuilding of the population. During this period, many of the technological breakthroughs of the First Kingdom were lost, most notably advanced irrigation techniques. The nation fell apart into small, feudal states, which changed drastically over the tumultuous time that followed. Several times, the nobility in charge of various regions of the nation attempted to rebuild the Atlian Kingdom, to varying degrees of success, but always failing in the end. By 600 AD, the various states had settled into a more consistent, basic layout, vaguely mirroring former tribal groupings.

These four hundred years were also marked by increasing Church influence in the day-to-day governance of the people. The Church was one of the few institutions remaining from the First Kingdom, and therefore one of the closest proxies for a central government of Atlia that existed at the time. As such, the internal politics and workings of the Church became increasingly important and tumultuous.

The first major feud in the Church occurred in 401 CE. Since the early decades of the 1st Century, Church elders had debated the legitimacy of the Letters of Hart Isle, by the prophet Malcom, as Church doctrine. The letters prescribed the basic tenets of Church functions, and had been widely accepted as the basis for many Churches in the area. However, by 401, an increasingly popular group began debating the legitimacy of using the writings, as they didn't come from Dalin himself. At the center of the debate was inclusion of public prayer in Church worship. To quote the First Letter of Hart Isle, "You shall stand as one and lift your voices in exultation to God's glory, for he has provided for you." This seemed to fly in the face of Dalin's prescription for prayer in the First Prophecy: "One who shouts in the market square of their love for God is no true believer, for he seeks only the acceptance of flawed matter. Blessed are they who keep God in their heart."

At the center of this debate were the twin Churches of Fronte and Melbias. The debate grew heated, with violence between followers of the two sides in several places, and so the Provite Council was formed. After a week of debate, it was agreed that only Intercessors could make claims on the control of the Church, but the Archon also agreed that Malcolm showed all the signs of an Intercessor, and so he was proclaimed an Intercessor, and his letters were collected and published.

The other events that marked both Church and state were the series of holy wars that ranged across Atlia at this time. Traditional pagan worship was seen as heretical by the Dalinian faith, and crusades to defeat pagan lords and convert them to Dalinism were common. Such crusades and wars are at the center of many stories. Called the Wars of Conversion, they form the central cultural image of the Inter-Kingdom Age for most modern Courellians, romanticized as they are due to the imagery of the "gallant knight", which later generations would add into the tales.

The Second Kingdom

The Second Kingdom
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In 619 AD, the Jaenisians attempted another series of raids on the Atlian mainland, which were repelled. In revenge for the death of his brother in the invasion, Willem Luecer formed an alliance with six other Dukes and set out on ships to Jaenis Isle. There, the Atlians turned the tables on their attackers, and eventually captured the Isle. Subjugating its people, Luecer renamed Jaenis Isle the Kingdom of Lueceria, and, 7 months later, used his political acumen and the ships captured at Jaenis Isle to attack an unprepared and weakened northern populace of the Atlian mainland. At the same time, he forcibly converted the Jaenisian populace to Dalinism in the Last War of Conversion, and gave his religious advisor the title of Archon-on-Lueceria. This caused the first long-term denominational split of the Dalinian Church, forming the Luecerian Orthodox Church.

With the help of his allies in the south and his own attacks from the north, Willem conquered much of Atlia under the banner of the Kingdom of Lueceria. This began the Second Kingdom, which would last five hundred years.

Willem Luecer died in 649 AD, and was succeeded by his son, Drommand Luecer. Drommand was a capable military commander in his own right, and led a series of brutal, expansionist attacks on the surrounding lands. While internal conflicts between the rapidly increasing number of dukes, lords, and barons were common, the Crown of Lueceria held stable power for the duration of the Second Kingdom.

For the next 300 years, the Kingdom was officially at peace. However, border skirmishes continued. In 952 AD, towards the end of King Bansio’s reign, rebellions began occurring. With the army forced to deal with the rebellions in the South, the tribal forces in the East rallied and surged over the borders. Combat was not swift, and the war was defined by quickly shifting and changing borders. Finally, around 980 AD, the Eastern tribes were pushed far enough back that they surrendered, making another long-term peace treaty.

The greatest divisions at the time were between sects of the Dalinian faith. The greatest controversy was related to the division between Luecerian Orthodoxy and the Dalinian Church. The Archon-on-Lueceria and the Dalinian Archon would battle for years, both seeing themselves as the true leader and heart of the Church. While early on the throne aligned itself with the Luecerian Orthodox faith, this changed over the years due to marriages with Dalinian nobility. In 967 CE, the throne of Lueceria officially left the Luecerian Orthodox Church with the capital's move to Leoncavallo, much to the dismay of the Orthodox Church. The Archon-on-Lueceria would work with the nobility over the coming decades to attempt to reinstall an Orthodox king.

In 1011 CE, this came to a head with the Singer Rebellions. Harald Luecer, a cousin of then-King Marcus Luecer, rose up with the backing of the Orthodox Church and a collection of nobles, and attempted to take the throne by force. His defeat in 1013 CE at the First Battle of Leoncavallo led to his exile on St. Margaret's Isle. He would rise again two years later, leading to his execution in 1016 CE. The end of the Singer Rebellions would lead to a period of peace and prosperity for the nation that would last for a century, marked only by minor political and religious squabbles that would set the formation of the modern Dalinian Church in motion.

The Reformative Age

The Reformative Age
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In 1157 CE, a matter of succession debate caused the nation to split again. Corvin Luecer, the eldest son of then-King Barriveld Luecer, but was actually the King's third child, after Genevieve Luecer and Juliette Averly (nee. Luecer). While Juliette had married, been widowed and joined a convent, Genevieva was still active and had spent much of her life assisting in court and crown affairs, while Corvin had been sent away to be tutored. With the death of their father, Corvin claimed he had the right to the throne, while Genevieve claimed the same. While technically at that time no woman had ever inherited the throne, there was nothing in the law stating that she couldn't inherit. Corvin's supporters claimed that he had the right as eldest son; Genevieve's claimed she had the right by practice and as eldest child. Religious divides again came to the fore: the Luecerian Orthodox Church heavily supported Corvin, and riled up their followers to also support him. This led to civil war, which ended at the Second Battle of Leoncavallo. The signing of the Leoncavallo Accord split the nation into two principalities: the Principality of Courelli in the east, under Genevieve, and the Principality of Leos in the west, under Corvin.

Over the course of his reign, a combination of higher taxes, unsuccessful wars and conflict with the Luecerian Orthodox Church had made Prince Corvin unpopular with his dukes, and in 1190 some of the most important decided to rebel against him. On July 13, 1191, he met the rebels at the Principality’s capital, Falceri, to seal the Script of Lords, which imposed legal limits on the Prince's personal powers. Because he had sealed under duress, however, Corvin received approval from the Archon-on-Lueceria to break his word as soon as hostilities had ceased, provoking a Courellian invasion by Prince Matthias Luecer, Genevieve's son and Corvin's nephew. Corvin traveled around the country to oppose the rebel forces, directing, among other operations, an eight-month siege of the rebel-held Wertham Castle. Corvin died in battle at the age of 51, and Matthias assumed the throne of a newly united nation, now under the banner of the Kingdom of Courelli.

In 1232, under King Fredrich, Matthias’ son, the Kingdom of Courelli willingly adopted the Script of Lords, which became the basis for its Constitution and National Assembly. Meanwhile, the Eastern tribes were dissolving under the pressure of their own feuding lords, first losing control of their eastern reaches to rebellion in 1221, then their southern-most territories in a series of conflicts between 1227 and 1237. The Kingdom of Courelli bided its time under the rule of Fredrich, and waited for the Eastern tribes to exhaust themselves in a series of internal conflicts.

Finally, in 1246, Fredrich turned his forces eastward and began capturing eastern territories. The wars were swift and decisive. By 1254, the whole land was united, save for Jaenis Isle.

This became the status quo for the next 200 years. The Luecer dynasty reestablished itself, and used this period to begin efforts at unifying the nation under a single culture. This involved the creation of extensive road systems, the spreading of Dalinian Church doctrine eastward, and a requirement for a unity of language. This became a period of peace and growth for the nation. In 1381, however, the Church faced a crisis as the Movine Heresy began to gain a foothold. The Church leveraged its power on the crown, but was faced with a cold shoulder. This led to the excommunication of several important lords and the brief Movine War, which lasted three months. At the end, the role of Archon of the Dalinian Church was dissolved and incorporated into the role of the crown. The excommunicated lords were absolved and allowed back into the fold of the Church, and the Movine Heresy was squashed.

The Imperialist Age

The Imperialist Age
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In 1494, King Henry of Courelli asked for the hand of the neighboring Jaenisian Prince's daughter in marriage, to seal an alliance, but was refused. Taking this insult to heart, he called for war. Courellian ships sailed northwards, and the War of Jaenis Isle began. Courelli swept through the island, and by 1500 had conquered it entirely.

Starting in 1505, having consolidated its Jaenisian holdings, the crown turned its attention outward. They began sending out explorers to nearby lands, the most notable of whom were Jasper Gray, a conman-turned-sailor, and Lord Mardo Bradley, a wealthy merchant. Gray used his silver-tongue and skill for naval command to establish several colonies in the surrounding region, while Bradley eventually established the Bradley Shipping Company, which would become an important force in the nearly 400 years of Courellian imperialism, especially in colonization of Miklania.

Gray would eventually return to Courelli to accept a lordship and commendation from the crown, and served under King Henry as chief naval advisor, and eventual regent for King James. Although he showed piety and intelligence, James was only nine years old when he took the throne in 1510. His uncle, Edward Adenbury, tampered with Henry’s will, and obtained letters patent giving him much of the power of a monarch by March 1511. He took the title of Protector. Whilst some see him as a high-minded idealist, his stay in power culminated in a crisis in 1513, when many counties of the kingdom were up in protest. Adenbury, disliked by the National Assembly for his autocratic methods, was removed from power by Gray. Gray proceeded to adopt the power of Protector for himself, but his methods were more conciliatory and the National Assembly accepted him.

Simultaneously, the Bradley Shipping Company was expanding its reach and influence, establishing itself as a primary political and trade force in many nations, acting as an arm of the Courellian Crown. In Miklania, they began integrating themselves into the local political networks. Using their wealth, they were able to leverage their way into positions of influence in the nation, and over the next century would act as a destabilizing force for local rulership. In 1550, Courellian settlers would establish the first colonies in Wellsia.

During this time, the basics of the landed gentry system began to gain deeper roots. Systems were established that provided greater and greater powers to the aristocracy, most notably in the functions of the legislative system. The Six Lords Act of 1533 established the basis for future Courellian governance in the form of the initial systems of the Council of Lords and its power over the National Assembly. The reign of James was seen as a golden age for Courelli. Issues which had divided the country for hundreds of years, including language and religion, had finally homogenized to the point of seeing a united Courellian presence and culture; internal peace was at a high. This allowed for an expansion of the powers of government, but due to the Six Lords' Act, the power of the nobility was maintained. James died in 1567, and was succeeded first by his eldest son, Marcus, who died the following year, and then by Peter, who would rule until 1588.

Courellian imperialism didn't truly grow to a head until the early 1600s. Before this time, the focus of Courellian growth was purely business based, avoiding military conflict if at all possible. Starting in 1601, however, Courelli began building up its naval power for rapid outward expansion. Utilizing trade routes established by the Bradley Shipping Company, Courelli allowed would-be colonies to grow dependent on Courellian trade, before severing the lines and utilizing naval might to force a stranglehold on local powers. Thus, Courellian imperialism began in earnest. A perfect example of this operation was in Miklania, where the BSC began leveraging their wealth and trade to begin controlling King Lvijas. This inflamed local passions and caused Miklania to tear itself apart. The BSC simply withdrew to their island fortresses to wait out the instability. When things settled, Miklania was still weak from the divide, and the Courellian Navy arrived on the coast. They took several coastal towns, which they used as a foothold to walk over the chaotic Eastern Republics, which were soon restyled as the Eastern Territories of Courellian Miklania. Not particularly interested in pushing further west since they had access to the resources they intended to capture, the Courellians spent the next century consolidating their power and imposing Courellian law over the area, including teaching of Dalinism and building of Dalinian churches.

This, combined with the new religious practices, inflamed the natives, who redoubled their efforts to defend their interior. Having not taken the opportunity to sweep into the mountainous interior early in the war, the Courellians provided too much time for the natives to generate a defense. At the same time, the pro-Dalinian laws generated a spark of rebellion amongst the captured areas of the country.

The war dragged on at that point, devolving into a war of attrition. The Miklanians couldn't move forward due to the technologies utilized by the Courellians, but the Courellians couldn't move forward due to their lack of knowledge of terrain, and ferocity of the Miklanians. Over the next 15 years, the war carried on, and became one of the deadliest in Courellian history. In the end, however, what ended the war was not the death toll on the battlefield, but in the captured cities. The combined forces of plague and rebellion brought down the Courellian army, as an epidemic of typhoid began spreading across their captured lands. With the Courellians weakened by disease, the inflamed populace saw their moment to rise up and toss out their religious oppressors. The Battle of Aeselrich was a disaster for the Courellians, with feverish, exhausted or hemorrhaging soldiers falling to the furious brutality of those they had oppressed.

With their rear lines dissolving, the Courellians on the frontlines were forced to withdraw, ceding territory back to the Miklanians, and in 1632 Courelli left Miklania entirely, with only a few Courellians left behind.

It was during this time that the indentured servant system that would come to epitomize the Courellian debtor problem would first grow to power. In 1601, Courelli passed the Indentured Servitude Act, which had drastic effects on Courellian culture and economics. The dukes of Courelli began firmly entrenching a loan-based economy, providing loans to settle and build on ducal land. These loans often had exorbitant interest rates, which would force people to sign their lives away to servitude once the period of their loans had come up. The majority of these indentured servants were used either working large plantations or in the manufacturing of textiles and lumber.

The rapid expansion of the Courellian Empire was stayed in the late 1600s by the Courellian Civil War. In 1653, A large body of revolutionaries, dubbed Republicans, dissatisfied with the monarchy, conducted a series of attacks on the forces of King Kay, the sitting monarch of the Kingdom of Courelli. In a grueling seven-year Civil War, the Royalists and Republicans met in many bloody battles, which culminated in January 1660 at the Third Battle of Leoncavallo, where the Royalist Army was defeated. King Kay fled to Jaenis Isle, but was eventually handed over to the National Assembly in 1662. He escaped, and the war continued, although it ended quickly, with the Republican Army quickly securing the country. The capture and subsequent trial of Kay led to his beheading in May 1663 at the Town Square in Leoncavallo, and Courelli was established as a republic.

The Formation of the Republic

Going forward, the National Assembly desired to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, and negotiated the Constitution of the Republic of Courelli. Under this Constitution, the National Assembly was a central authority without any legislative power. It could pass its own resolutions, determinations, and regulations, but not any laws, and could not impose any taxes or enforce regulations upon its citizens. This institutional design reflected how Courellians believed the deposed system of Crown ought to have functioned, with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire nation.

Regional governments, now called Provinces, were out from under monarchic rule, and assigned some formerly-royal prerogatives (making war, receiving ambassadors) to the National Assembly; the remaining prerogatives were lodged within their own respective Provincial governments.

With peace now at hand, the Provinces turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1678, Courellians found their continental borders besieged and weak, and their respective economies in crises as neighboring Provinces agitated trade rivalries with one another. They witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their commerce preyed upon by Pirates, and their Civil War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed.

Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Einaudi and Monteverdi at the Picci Conference in 1685, Einaudi called for a conference between all the Provinces, set for September 1686 in Leoncavallo, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms. When the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other Provinces, NAME led the Giordiano delegation in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Constitution, to be held the next spring. Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until NAME and NAME succeeded in securing NAME's attendance to the convention as a delegate for Salieri.

When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1687, the delegations in attendance brought with them an accumulated experience over a diverse set of institutional arrangements between legislative and executive branches from within their respective Provincial governments. Most Provinces maintained a weak executive without veto or appointment powers, elected annually by the legislature to a single term only, sharing power with an executive council, and countered by a strong legislature. Monteverdi offered the greatest exception, having a strong, unitary governor with veto and appointment power elected to a three-year term, and eligible for reelection to an indefinite number of terms thereafter. It was through the closed-door negotiations at the Convention that the executive framed in the Constitution as we know it today, which would be adopted in August 1689, emerged.

The Fall of the Empire

The Fall of the Empire
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The 1700s were marked by a series of international conflicts. As a result of lucrative Courellian trade with its colonies and allies, the waters surrounding Courelli were becoming increasingly prone to piracy. The Republic made it a priority to combat the increased pirate activity, beginning the continuous and frequent Pirate Wars of the 1700s and early 1800s.

The bloodiest of the Pirate Wars occurred at their outset, between 1710 and 1720. Courelli had formed a special navy of pirate hunters and privateers to combat the growing threat to their trade dominion. Famous pirate admiral (and former captain of the Courellian Navy) Perrigrine Young gathered together a force rivaling the size of the whole of the Courellian Navy. The pirate hunting brigade was forced into a decisive conflict with the pirate armada at the Battle of Black Fog, so-called because primary sources claim that the sea was "so choked by the smoke from the cannons it seemed God had decided to send in a black fog". The pirate armada was only broken by the sudden arrival of help from Courellian naval genius, Admiral Wilson Kirkham. While Captain Young himself escaped the end of the conflict and would later retire in Anaaxes, it is said that more than 300 pirates were executed after the battle and dumped overboard to feed "an army of sharks", although the number has been debated in modern times.

As Courelli became more secular, religious groups became more extreme. On December 24, 1731, pagan rebels attempted the assassination of the Governor. The six rebels managed to sneak into the Capitol building under the guise of service staff. Armed with daggers, one of the would-be assassins managed to stab the Governor twice before being taken down by guards. All of the rebels in the Capitol were captured, and the Governor survived the stabbing. This led to the Wheatfield Crisis, wherein known pagans had their rights suppressed and were executed en masse.

In 1742, Courelli faced the Great Slave Revolt. Slaves across the homeland, emboldened by propositions presented by Hellingsford Freeman and Lucas Potvin in their travels across Courelli, took arms against their masters, who were primarily members of the landed gentry. The revolts started in Falceri and rapidly spread across Courelli, particularly to the rice paddies of the south. Homeland agricultural production ground nearly to a halt. By September of that year, the domestic economy faced such a crisis that the Governor issued the Emancipation Order, officially banning slavery in Courelli. While slaves were freed, many wound up signing themselves into indentured servitude over the following years, essentially returning them to their previous standing.

In 1746, pirate forces swept into the Wellsian colonies. Over the next two years, the most disastrous of the Pirate Wars would be waged, forcing back the Courellian army and eventually ousting the Courellian colonial government. The pirates would conquer the Wellsian colonies and establish their own nation in 1748.

In order to pay for the increasingly expensive Pirate Wars, the Government once again began raising taxes in the colonies. Local kings took this as an excuse to begin raising armies, and in 1748, revolted against the Courellian Crown. Local Courellian soldiers were rapidly pushed back to their well-defended ports, which were besieged by the rebels. The rebel navy moved in and trapped the Courellian forces in many of their port cities. According to folk tales, one brave Courellian soldier, John Lockesley, swam past the rebel navy in the dead of night and stole a rowboat, with which he rowed home to warn Courelli. The accuracy of this tale is minuscule at best. It is more likely that loyalist infiltrators of the rebels themselves smuggled Lockesley out of the country themselves. When all seemed lost, the Courellian navy arrived and trapped the rebel navy between them and land, tearing apart the rebel forces. Morale broken, the rebels fell back, and were defeated by the Courellian army in 1753.

In 1792, a Courellian pirate hunter mistakenly sunk an Ithian merchant vessel off the coast of Jaenis Isle. This was followed by a retaliatory strike from the Kingdom of Ithia, sinking the Courellian merchant vessel St. Albert. The two nations declared war in August of 1792, leading to the Ithian invasion of Jaenis Isle later that year. The war was swift and decisive on the side of Ithia due to the fact that Jaenis Isle was sparsely defended and Courelli was militarily spread thin across the Empire.

Ithia held the isle until 1803, at which point it pulled off the island due to its lack of strategic importance and the fact that it was an economic sink to defend an isle that sparsely populated and with no major resources just for the sake of an old grudge. With the Courellian Empire already beginning to weaken, Courelli allowed Jaenis Isle to retain independence as a "culturally independent territory within the sphere of Courellian dominion."

The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution
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On the homefront, Courelli was focused on the development of its interior. Courellian culture, which had always been centered on the ideals of work ethic and efficiency, were swift to embrace industrial reform, and began an industrial revolution in the early 1800s. This movement was guided by the highly influential Bradley Shipping Company, which over the first decade of the 19th Century would shift from its trade dominance to manufacturing, becoming the Bradley Machinery Company in 1811. The internationally accepted "Courellian identity" was cemented at this time: hard-working, financially motivated and resourceful.

This period of rapid industrialization brought with it systems that would remain entrenched for the coming centuries. The indentured service, workhouse and debtors prisons systems came to be intertwined in an intrinsic fashion. Banks and large-scale, nobility-owned corporations started coming into existence. The national interest in manufacturing exploded. The city of Leoncavallo’s population tripled in a period of five years as its factories became central to the Courellian economy.

1848 saw reforms in voting rights, as the battle for women's suffrage began. Women marched on the National Assembly, one of the earliest examples of non-violent protest in Courellian history. In 1849, the Women's Rights Act passed, and women were given full and equal voting, property ownership and employment rights as men. This sowed a seed for further rights reforms in coming decades, and was the first glimmer of anti-aristocratic sentiment that would come to grow over the next century-and-a-half.

The 1850s were marked by the Courellian Silver Rush. While silver had always been available, a particularly large vein was discovered in 1852, which led thousands to rush eastward in the hopes of capturing their fortunes. Mining corporations began selling prospecting licenses for land owned by their holdings, and developed legal teams for finding and prosecuting illegal prospectors. Known as Pellmans, after Louis Pellman of the Leoncavallo Mining Corporation, their ruthlessness and brutality was well-noted, and some historians point to this moment as the first sign of corporate power overreach in Courelli.

From 1840 to 1860, marijuana growth and usage came to prominence in Courelli. Known as "soft opium", its use was common among the lower classes, particularly factory workers. It's usage exploded in 1855, when the National Assembly passed large taxes on beer, rendering the beverage unaffordable to most people. Marijuana became the post-work relaxant of choice in Courelli, far surpassing alcohol and tobacco in that regard. While its use dwindled in the late 1860s and 1870s, its use would be considered normal thereafter.

The 1860s also saw the completion of the original Courellian Rail Network, with it then possible to travel from Leoncavallo in the southeast to the western-most tip of Courelli non-stop on a single ticket. The run became famous when it was raced by six men on horseback, leading to the death of two engineers in a rockslide, and one of the horsemen to drowning during a river crossing.

At the same time, a series of cholera outbreaks would run rampant across the mainland of Courelli. These outbreaks reached epidemic levels over the years between 1880 and 1883, before finally subsiding. Following the epidemic, Courelli began large-scale infrastructure development to combat future disease. Huge building projects began, including construction of then-modern sewer systems, hospitals and transport systems. Courellian infrastructure was so impressive that the nation’s engineering and industrial expertise was the envy of many other nations around the globe.

In the early 1890s, Jaenis Isle faced revolution from a minority group supporting re-entry to the Empire. Courelli sent support for the rebels, but withdrew due to the perceived lack of economic motivation in retaking Jaenis Isle. Jaenisian refugees swarmed back to Courelli and were welcomed with open arms into both the culture and workforce. In 1895, a powerful earthquake struck Jaenis Isle and caused a tsunami that swept across portions of northern Courelli. In a single decade, the population of Jaenis Isle had declined from an estimated 50,000 to below 15,000, as result of emigration, disease, famine and disaster. This period is called the Great Jaenisian Misery.

The Twentieth Century

The Twentieth Century
Timeframe
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The early 20th century was mostly peaceful for Courelli. It found itself in an economic upswing as a result of its shift to heavy manufacturing. Courelli was seen as a powerful and important neutral trading partner by nations around the world, concerning itself mostly with business and not for international politics. This engendered increased nationalism and a wave of increased imperialism, sometimes considered the "last death spasms of the Courellian Empire." Sparked by these sentiments, Governor Charles Springer pushed for what he called a "reconstruction of the traditional Courellian identity" through recapture of old territory. The first push was to reinvade and recapture Miklania.

Initially massively successful, the Courellian invasion of Miklania faced little resistance. The Miklanian forces were small and ill-prepared for the modern Courellian military force. The Miklanian militias lost cohesive organization rapidly and Courelli was able to capture large swaths of Miklania, including the capital, and executed Miklanian leadership. Some of the Miklanian government managed to escape and rejoin with militia leaders to form an underground government loyal to the Miklanian constitution. This underground government began a guerrilla war against the occupying Courellian forces. More suited to the traditional combat of the 1800s, the Courellian army was not ready for these tactics and began to be pushed back. The underground Miklanian government recaptured many cities, but the largest shift in the war came at sea. The last remnants of the Miklanian navy following an early and decisive loss got a major windfall when they caught much of the Courellian navy at harbor. Blocking escape, the two ships unloaded upon the Courellian forces and sunk many ships, eventually leading to a cease-fire and surrender negotiations. The terms were generous to the Courellians, with the Miklanians knowing that Courelli still had the advantage if it came back to fire now that the Courellian navy was prepared. The Miklanians allowed them to pack up and leave. While combat continued on land for some time, the Courellian loss at the harbor swung the balance of power towards the Miklanians.

Embarrassed by the loss to "underequipped colonials," pressure was levied by the Council of Lords, and Courellian forces were withdrawn. Governor Springer was removed from power due to the incident, with most of the blame levied against him. From the Miklanian perspective, the war encouraged their militaristic tendencies, creating the militarized state that is known today.

Sparked by the unequal treatment soldiers of color faced upon returning home from the invasion, the time following the war was one of discontent. Non-white soldiers had fought side-by-side with white soldiers, equal on the battlefield, but returned home to find their rights limited by a white aristocracy, with a disproportionate black population in indentured servitude, workhouses or debtor's prisons as a result. This discontent erupted in 1920, as race riots began throughout Leoncavallo. In 1921, the Racial Equality Act was passed, giving non-whites in Courelli the same rights as white citizens.

However, a powder keg had been lit. Hateful of the aristocracy, a growing group of dissenters were inspired by the Workers' Revolution in the North American Republics. In 1928, the Worker's Party of Courelli attempted an armed revolt, which lasted six months before ending in the dissolution of the party. This revolt was marked by extreme violence on both sides, to an extent not seen in more than a century on the Courellian mainland. It finally ended with the public executions of several WPA leaders on the steps of the Capitol. The remnants of the party began an intellectual, anti-aristocratic movement more in line with Courellian cultural tradition.

The general increase in personal wealth allowed for a never-before-seen luxury commodities market. Televisions became widely available and adopted. This began the expansion of the Courellian media industry, which had begun at the turn of the century with the early adoption and development of film studios. Courelli became a regional leader for television production, development and broadcast. Television news and journalism became a major facet of Courelli's culture and foreign policy strategy. Along with this came an increase of related media industries. Music, advertising and the already successful film market all rapidly increased in response to the increased interest in television through the 50s and 60s. The interest in manufacturing and industry, combined with this media interest and the accompanying growth in an early electronics market of the era flourished into Courellian futurism: the obsessive need for technological and artistic development into futuristic fields. Science fiction and speculative fiction became immensely popular genres, representing an optimistic view of the future and the possibilities of technology.

The seemingly limitless potential for growth of the Courelli economy came to a peak in the early 1970s. Property values had sky-rocketed and the value of Courelli products had grown massively and, arguably, unsustainably. In 1972, the bubble popped. After 30 years of expansive growth, the property bubble collapsed, causing sudden and appreciable losses across the Courellian economy. Market values of Courellian goods dropped, and with them opportunities for investment diminished. International shareholders and domestic investors began pulling their support of Courellian assets and currency values dropped. Unfortunately, the Courellian government was so committed to their sentiments of an absolutely free market that they refused to take proactive measures to limit the effects of recession. Instead, they assumed that the market would level out and naturally correct. However, decreased confidence in the market caused it to collapse further. Currency rates plummeted, and by 1974, the recession had settled into a depression. Poverty increased and many of the gains created over the last 40 years were lost. Infrastructure stagnated and many businesses closed their doors. The depression lasted three years while the government scrambled to adjust its economic policy to fix the problem. While the economy began to bounce back in 1978, the damage had already begun. Public trust in the government was at an all-time low, and the Fascist movement within the military had garnered a powerful foothold.

The Coup

The Coup
Timeframe
DATE - DATE
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In the fall of 1980, a military regiment under the control of General Justin Thatch turned on the government, beginning a bloody military coup that would last five years. Beginning at Leoncavallo in the south, military forces rapidly divided along Loyalist and Fascist lines. The government attempted to reign in the military insurrection with heavy police action, but by December of 1980, the hostilities had erupted into full-blown civil war.

Fascist forces found their strongest foothold in the north, particularly in the area around the city of Falceri. Over the first few months of the war, they focused on digging into their defensive areas. The heaviest combat at that time occurred along the south-east coast, where Fascist holdings were weakest. It looked at this time like Loyalist forces would easily be able to push back the Fascists, and end the war before it started. This changed with the Fascist capture of a Courellian naval base at Picci. This gave the Fascists a foothold to push east along the coast, forcing back loyalist forces.

By late 1981, the Fascists had moved from the defensive to the offensive, and began pushing east. In the spring of 1983, they reached Leoncavallo. While most government action had been moved to Monte Gabrieli due to the threat of increased attacks, some politicians had remained or had been delayed. On May 19th, 1983, Fascist forces stormed the Capitol and managed to capture twelve politicians, who they beheaded on the steps of the Capitol. This would become one of the most infamous moments of the war, and would taint Courellian foreign relations for years. At the same time, the Courellian Empire officially came to an end. The burdens of the war and increased nationalism in Gudao forced Courelli to release the last of its holdings.

By this point, both sides had begun to slip into more and more desperate action. Human rights abuses and war crimes were commonplace, including abuse of civilians and POWs. Fascist momentum had slowed through the middle of 1982, and as the stalemate grew more entrenched, so too did the continued escalation of violence. The 101 East-West Highway between Leoncavallo and Monte Gabrieli became known as the Highway of Blood, with 90% of the war's most deadly conflict occurring within 20 miles on either side of the highway. Famous photos of soldiers from both sides being hung from the bridge are present in records from the time. Soldier suicides were commonplace on both sides of the conflict.

This stalemate continued for two years, until late 1984. At this point, Fascist forces mobilized a mass offensive and captured three nuclear missile silos on the southern coast. Fascist forces then threatened to bomb Bassano and Monte Gabrieli if Loyalist forces refused to surrender. The Loyalists, in turn, threatened nuclear retaliation on the Fascist-held populations of Picci and Falceri. Only the intervention of fate prevented nuclear catastrophe.

On January 12, 1985, General Thatch was found dead in his living quarters, along with his 2 mistresses. This news was closely followed by the death of Governor Augustus Pero due to stress-induced heart attack in Monte Gabrieli. With both sides leaderless, the coup entered a much more quiet stalemate, from which rose Augustus' cousin, James Fitzgerald. James oversaw a treaty between the two sides, and was installed as Governor on November 5th, 1985.

The Modern Age

The Modern Age
Timeframe
DATE - DATE
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As a result of the coup, anti-nuclear and anti-military sentiment grew. The government, still reeling from the war, could not bring themselves to demilitarize completely, but saw the need to eliminate their nuclear stockpiles. Over the next five years, Courelli completely disarmed their nuclear program and began rebuilding their infrastructure, which had been severely delayed by the 1970s depression and damaged by the coup. The nation soon became extreme proponents of global nuclear disarmament.

It was clear to the leadership of the nation that massive overhauls would have to be done to the economic system if Courelli was to pull itself from the depths. Thankfully, Governor Fitzgerald was as effective an economist as he was a diplomat. Between 1985 and 1990, he began implementing policies that increased manufacturing and construction jobs, and began massively opening trade with foreign nations. While the Courellian economy initially took a hit due to decreased revenue from lowered tariffs, by 1990, the economy had begun righting itself and was increasingly rapidly.

Courelli was swift to grab onto the trends of the information era. The government pushed for massive expansion of the most modern technology, and huge projects were put in place to overhaul Leoncavallo from the ground-up. In a reflection of its time in after the coup, the Courellian economy exploded, rapidly increasing through the ‘90s and into the early 2000s to resemble its glory days.

The ‘90s and 2000s were a time of economic and foreign policy adjustment. Courellian neutrality became paramount to the people, who did not wish to see the nation thrown into any other wars. Governor Fitzgerald ruled on a platform of respect for sovereignty, refusing to become involved in matters not seen to directly involve Courelli or its foreign trade concerns.

In 2000, a wave of gun-based crimes in Leoncavallo led to severe overhaul of gun ownership laws. The crimes, which were mostly muggings-gone-wrong in various parks and public spaces of the Capitol, led to a six year debate on public safety measures and privacy concerns, which would lead to the creation of the Bastion Network in 2005. The Bastion Network was a city-wide CCTV network created and monitored by Bastion Technologies. The implementation of the system would see a marked decrease in crime throughout the city. However, stringent regulatory and bureaucratic laws meant that the system's effectiveness at actually preventing crime were severely limited.

In late 2015, civil unrest began as a result of the Council of Lords grabbing extra-constitutional powers. This culminated in the Courellian Succession Crisis of 2016. When Governor Michael Wallace died, there was no constitutional protocol for his replacement. It was declared that Lieutenant-Governor Jacob G. Hartley would be inaugurated, under much public scrutiny. Anti-government protesters rioted, leading to an explosive conflict in the Capitol as rebels became armed and attempted an uprising. The rebels were defeated, but the instability caused the overturn of the constitution as a result of rampant corruption. Hartley was arrested following a vote of no confidence, but disappeared in the chaos of the conflict. A quorum was established and a new Constitution ratified, leading to the overhaul of the 300-year-old Courellian political system. A new Governor, Joshua B. Thomas, was elected, and under his rule, Courelli entered into a time more prosperous than ever before.

Government

Executive

Governor

The Governor
of the
Republic of Courelli

Courelli Governor Seal.png
Seal of the Governor
of the Republic of Courelli
Joe Kennedy, Official Portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
Incumbent
Joshua B. Thomas
Party Affiliation
Social Democratic Party
Executive Branch of the Courellian Government
Term Length Four-year term,
renewable once
Residence Executive Mansion
Seat Leoncavallo, EN, Courelli

The Governor of the Republic of Courelli is the head of state and head of government of the Republic of Courelli.

The Governor directs the Executive Branch of the Government and is the Commander-in-Chief of the Courellian Armed Forces.

Powers and Duties
Selection Process
Eligibility

The Constitution sets the following qualifications for holding the Governorship:

  • be a natural-born citizen of the Republic of Courelli;
  • be at least thirty years old;

A person who meets the above qualifications is still disqualified from holding the Office of Governor under any of the following conditions:

  • No person can be elected Governor more than twice;
  • Upon conviction in impeachment cases, the National Assembly has the option of disqualifying convicted individuals from holding federal office, including that of Governor.
Election

The Governor is elected directly by the qualified citizens of the Republic of Courelli.

The Electoral Board of each Province meets at its Provincial capital -- about six weeks after the election -- to officially compile a report on the votes in their Province. They then send a copy of that report to the National Assembly. The reports are opened by the sitting Lieutenant Governor and read aloud to a joint session of the National Assembly.

Upon certification of the results by the National Assembly, the results are considered firm and final.

Term and Tenure

The term of office for the Governor is four years.

Residence
File:Courelli Gov Residence.jpg
The Executive Mansion

Lieutenant Governor

The Lieutenant Governor
of the
Republic of Courelli

100px
Seal of the Lieutenant Governor
of the Republic of Courelli
Tulsi Gabbard, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
Incumbent
Sara Robins
Party Affiliation
Social Democratic Party
Executive Branch of the Courellian Government
Term Length Four-year term,
renewable once
Residence Courellian Naval Observatory
Seat Aleotti, EN, Courelli

The Lieutenant Governor of the Republic of Courelli is the second-highest officer of the Executive Branch of the Government, and is the highest-ranking official in the Gubernatorial line of succession.

Powers and Duties

The Lieutenant Governor has several primary duties:

  • To cast a vote in the event of a National Assembly deadlock;
  • To preside over and certify the official vote count of the Gubernatorial election;

There is a strong convention within the National Assembly that the Lieutenant Governor should not use their position to influence the passage of legislation in a partisan manner, except in the case of breaking tie votes.

Selection Process
Eligibility

The Constitution sets the following qualifications for holding the Lieutenant Governorship:

  • be a natural-born citizen of the Republic of Courelli;
  • be at least thirty years old;

A person who meets the above qualifications is still disqualified from holding the Office of Lieutenant Governor under any of the following conditions:

  • No person can be elected Lieutenant Governor more than twice;
  • Upon conviction in impeachment cases, the National Assembly has the option of disqualifying convicted individuals from holding federal office, including that of Lieutenant Governor.
Election

The Lieutenant Governor is elected directly by the qualified citizens of the Republic of Courelli.

The Electoral Board of each Province meets at its Provincial capital -- about six weeks after the election -- to officially compile a report on the votes in their Province. They then send a copy of that report to the National Assembly. The reports are opened by the sitting Lieutenant Governor and read aloud to a joint session of the National Assembly.

Upon certification of the results by the National Assembly, the results are considered firm and final.

Term and Tenure

The term of office for the Lieutenant Governor is four years.

Residence
File:Courelli Lt Gov Residence.jpg
The Lieutenant Governor's residence on the grounds of the Courellian Naval Observatory

Department of Agriculture

The Department of Agriculture
File:Courelli DoA Seal.png
Seal of the Department of Agriculture
Secretary of Agriculture
Mo Cowan, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
Incumbent
Thomas Price
Party Affiliation
TBD
Executive Branch of the Courellian Government
Term Length At the pleasure of the Governor
Office TBA
Seat Leoncavallo, EN, Courelli

The Department of Agriculture, also known as the Agriculture Department, is the executive department responsible for developing and executing laws related to farming, agriculture, forestry, and food.

It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the Republic of Courelli and internationally.

The Executive Branch has constitutional responsibilities for regulating and overseeing the nation's food production and nutrition system. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of Agriculture is the lead food production and nutrition agency, and its head, the Secretary of Agriculture, is the Governor's principal food production and nutrition advisor. The Department advances Courellian objectives and interests domestically through its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's food production and nutrition policy.

As stated by the Department of Agriculture, its purpose includes:

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The Department of Agriculture conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses both the Civil Service for its positions. Duties of employees include:

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In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of Agriculture works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of the Interior and Department of Health. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about food production and nutrition policy initiatives and policies.

Department of Commerce and Labor

The Department of
Commerce and Labor

File:Courelli DoCL Seal.png
Seal of the Department of Commerce and Labor
Secretary of Commerce and Labor
Joaquin Castro, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
Incumbent
Scott Andrews
Party Affiliation
TBD
Executive Branch of the Courellian Government
Term Length At the pleasure of the Governor
Office TBA
Seat Leoncavallo, EN, Courelli

The Department of Commerce and Labor is the executive department concerned with promoting economic growth, monitoring occupational safety, establishing wage and hour standards, managing unemployment insurance benefits, overseeing reemployment services, and collecting economic statistics.

The mission of the department is to "promote job creation and improved living standards for all Courellians by creating an infrastructure that promotes economic growth, technological competitiveness, and sustainable development."

The Executive Branch has constitutional responsibilities for regulating domestic trade and labor regulations. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of Commerce and Labor is the lead trade and labor agency, and its head, the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, is the Governor's principal economic advisor. The Department advances Courellian objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's economic policy. It also provides an array of important services to Courellian citizens seeking employment or related benefits.

As stated by the Department of Commerce and Labor, its purpose includes:

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The Department of Commerce and Labor conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses the Civil Service system for its positions. Duties of employees include:

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In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of Commerce and Labor works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of State and the Department of the Treasury. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about economic policy initiatives and policies.

Department of Defense

The Department of Defense
File:Courelli DoD Seal.png
Seal of the Department of Defense
Secretary of Defense
Doug Collins, Official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
Incumbent
Henry Russell
Party Affiliation
TBD
Executive Branch of the Courellian Government
Term Length At the pleasure of the Governor
Office TBA
Seat Leoncavallo, EN, Courelli

The Department of Defense is an executive department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the Courellian Armed Forces.

The Executive Branch has constitutional responsibilities for providing for the defense of Courelli and its citizens. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of Defense is the lead defense agency, and its head, the Secretary of Defense, is the Governor's principal defense advisor. The Department provides for the protection of Courelli, its citizens, and its objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's defense policy.

As stated by the Department of Defense, its purpose includes:

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The Department of Defense conducts these activities with a joint military and civilian workforce, and normally uses both the Selective Service and Civil Service system for its positions. Duties of employees include:

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In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of Defense works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of State and the Department of Justice. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about defense policy initiatives and policies.

Department of Education

The Department of Education
File:Courelli DoE Seal.png
Seal of the Department of Education
Secretary of Education
100px
Incumbent
Nancy Howard
Party Affiliation
TBD
Executive Branch of the Courellian Government
Term Length At the pleasure of the Governor
Office TBA
Seat Leoncavallo, EN, Courelli

The Department of Education, also referred to as the Education Department, is an executive department whose primary functions are to "establish policy for, administer and coordinate most federal assistance to education, collect data on US schools, and to enforce federal educational laws regarding privacy and civil rights."

The Executive Branch has constitutional responsibilities for regulating and overseeing the nation's education system. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of Education is the lead education agency, and its head, the Secretary of Education, is the Governor's principal education advisor. The Department advances Courellian objectives and interests in the classroom through its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's education policy. It also provides an array of important services to Courellian citizens seeking education.

As stated by the Department of Education, its purpose includes:

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The Department of Education conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses the private sector for its positions. Duties of employees include:

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In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of Education works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture and the Department of the Interior. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about education policy initiatives and policies.

Department of Energy

The Department of Energy
File:Courelli DoEn Seal.png
Seal of the Department of Energy
Secretary of Energy
Patrick Murphy, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
Incumbent
Nathaniel Meyer
Party Affiliation
Green Party
Executive Branch of the Courellian Government
Term Length At the pleasure of the Governor
Office TBA
Seat Leoncavallo, EN, Courelli

The Department of Energy is an executive department concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.

Its responsibilities include the nation's nuclear weapons program, nuclear reactor production for the Courellian Navy, energy conservation, energy-related research, radioactive waste disposal, and domestic energy production.

The Executive Branch has constitutional responsibilities for regulating and overseeing the production and use of energy. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of Energy is the lead energy agency, and its head, the Secretary of Energy, is the Governor's principal energy advisor. The Department advances Courellian objectives and interests domestically through its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's energy policy.

As stated by the Department of Energy, its purpose includes:

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The Department of Energy conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses both the Civil Service and the private sector for its positions. Duties of employees include:

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In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of Energy works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of the Interior. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about energy policy initiatives and policies.

Department of Health

The Department of Health
File:Courelli DoHHS Seal.png
Seal of the Department of Health
Secretary of Health
Paul Cook, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
Incumbent
Michael Cox
Party Affiliation
TBD
Executive Branch of the Courellian Government
Term Length At the pleasure of the Governor
Office TBA
Seat Leoncavallo, EN, Courelli

The Department of Health, also known as the Health Department, is an executive department with the goal of protecting the health of all Courellians and providing essential human services. Its motto is "Improving the health, safety, and well-being of Courelli".

The Executive Branch has constitutional responsibilities for providing for the general health and wellness of its citizens. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of Health is the lead health agency, and its head, the Secretary of Health, is the Governor's principal health advisor. The Department advances Courellian objectives and interests in the clinic and in daily life through its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's health policy. It also provides an array of important services to Courellian citizens seeking healthcare or related information.

As stated by the Department of Health, its purpose includes:

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The Department of Health conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses both the Civil Service and private sector for its positions. Duties of employees include:

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In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of Health works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture and the Department of the Interior. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about health policy initiatives and policies.

Department of the Interior

The Department of the Interior
File:Courelli DotI Seal.png
Seal of the Department of the Interior
Secretary of the Interior
Ann McLane Kuster, Official Portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
Incumbent
Elizabeth Woods
Party Affiliation
Green Party
Executive Branch of the Courellian Government
Term Length At the pleasure of the Governor
Office TBA
Seat Leoncavallo, EN, Courelli

The Department of the Interior is the executive department responsible for domestic affairs, including the management and conservation of most public lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to territorial affairs of the Republic of Courelli.

About 75% of public land is managed by the department, with most of the remainder managed by the Department of Agriculture.

The Executive Branch has constitutional responsibilities for regulating and overseeing the nation's domestic affairs. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of the Interior is the lead domestic agency, and its head, the Secretary of the Interior, is the Governor's principal domestic advisor. The Department advances Courellian objectives and interests domestically its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's domestic policy. It also provides an array of important services to Courellian citizens in their daily lives.

As stated by the Department of the Interior, its purpose includes:

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The Department of the Interior conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses both the Civil Service and the private sector for its positions. Duties of employees include:

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In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of the Interior works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about domestic policy initiatives and policies.

Department of Justice

The Department of Justice
File:Courelli DoJ Seal.png
Seal of the Department of Justice
Attorney General
100px
Incumbent
Sally Wilson
Party Affiliation
TBD
Executive Branch of the Courellian Government
Term Length At the pleasure of the Governor
Office TBA
Seat Leoncavallo, EN, Courelli

The Department of Justice, also known as the Justice Department, is an executive department responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the Republic of Courelli.

The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the National Investigation and Intelligence Agency. The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the Courellian Government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the national corrections system.

The Executive Branch has constitutional responsibilities for regulating and overseeing the nation's intelligence and justice system. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of Justice is the lead intelligence and justice agency, and its head, the Attorney General, is the Governor's principal intelligence and justice advisor. The Department advances Courellian objectives and interests domestically through its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's intelligence and justice policy.

As stated by the Department of Justice, its purpose includes:

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The Department of Justice conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses both the Civil Service for its positions. Duties of employees include:

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In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of Justice works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of State. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about intelligence and justice policy initiatives and policies.

Department of State

The Department of State
File:Courelli DoS Seal.png
Seal of the Department of State
Secretary of State
Martin Heinrich, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
Incumbent
Charles P. Hall
Party Affiliation
TBD
Executive Branch of the Courellian Government
Term Length At the pleasure of the Governor
Office TBA
Seat Leoncavallo, EN, Courelli

The Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Courellian executive department that advises the Governor and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

Equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries, the State Department is responsible for the international relations of the Republic of Courelli, negotiates treaties and agreements with foreign entities, and represents the Republic of Courelli in the World Assembly.

The Executive Branch and the National Assembly have constitutional responsibilities for Courellian foreign policy. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of State is the lead Courellian foreign affairs agency, and its head, the Secretary of State, is the Governor's principal foreign policy advisor. The Department advances Courellian objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's foreign policy. It also provides an array of important services to Courellian citizens and to foreigners seeking to visit or immigrate to the Republic of Courelli.

As stated by the Department of State, its purpose includes:

  • Protecting and assisting Courellian citizens living or traveling abroad;
  • Assisting Courellian businesses in the international marketplace;
  • Coordinating and providing support for international activities of other Courellian agencies, official visits overseas and at home, and other diplomatic efforts.
  • Keeping the public informed about Courellian foreign policy and relations with other countries and providing feedback from the public to administration officials.

The Department of State conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses the Foreign Service personnel system for positions that require service abroad. Employees may be assigned to diplomatic missions abroad to:

  • Represent Courelli;
  • Analyze and report on political, economic, and social trends;
  • Adjudicate visas; and
  • Respond to the needs of Courellian citizens abroad.

In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of State works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of Defense, the Department of the Treasury, and the Department of Commerce and Labor. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about foreign policy initiatives and policies.

Department of Transportation

The Department of Transportation
File:Courelli DoT Seal.png
Seal of the Department of Transportation
Secretary of Transportation
Tim Scott, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
Incumbent
Samuel Cunningham
Party Affiliation
TBD
Executive Branch of the Courellian Government
Term Length At the pleasure of the Governor
Office TBA
Seat Leoncavallo, EN, Courelli

The Department of Transportation is an executive department concerned with transportation.

Its mission is to "Serve the Republic of Courelli by ensuring a fast, safe, efficient, accessible, and convenient transportation system that meets our vital national interests and enhances the quality of life of the Courellian people, today and into the future."

The Executive Branch has constitutional responsibilities for regulating and overseeing the nation's transportation system. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of Transportation is the lead transportation agency, and its head, the Secretary of Transportation, is the Governor's principal transportation advisor. The Department advances Courellian objectives and interests domestically through its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's transportation policy. It also provides an array of important services to Courellian citizens through the maintenance of infrastructure.

As stated by the Department of Transportation, its purpose includes:

  • TBA
  • TBA
  • TBA
  • TBA

The Department of Transportation conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses both the Civil Service and the private sector for its positions. Duties of employees include:

  • TBA
  • TBA
  • TBA
  • TBA

In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of Transportation works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of the Interior. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about transportation policy initiatives and policies.

Department of the Treasury

The Department of the Treasury
File:Courelli DotT Seal.png
Seal of the Department of the Treasury
Secretary of the Treasury
Jeffrey Chiesa, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
Incumbent
William Hancock
Party Affiliation
TBD
Executive Branch of the Courellian Government
Term Length At the pleasure of the Governor
Office TBA
Seat Leoncavallo, EN, Courelli

The Department of the Treasury is an executive department whose responsibilities include producing currency and coinage, collecting taxes and paying bills of the Government, managing the national finances, supervising banks and thrifts, and advising on fiscal policy.

The Treasury prints and mints all paper currency and coins in circulation through the National Mint and Reserve. The Department also collects all federal taxes through the National Revenue Service, and manages Government debt.

The Executive Branch has constitutional responsibilities for regulating and overseeing the nation's financial system. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of the Treasury is the lead financial agency, and its head, the Secretary of the Treasury, is the Governor's principal financial advisor. The Department advances Courellian objectives and interests in the domestic and global economy through its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's financial policy.

As stated by the Department of the Treasury, its purpose includes:

  • TBA
  • TBA
  • TBA
  • TBA

The Department of the Treasury conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses both the Civil Service and the private sector for its positions. Duties of employees include:

  • TBA
  • TBA
  • TBA
  • TBA

In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of the Treasury works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of Commerce and Labor and the Department of the Interior. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about financial policy initiatives and policies.

Legislative

The National Assembly

The National Assembly
File:Courelli National Assembly Seal.png
Seal of the National Assembly
Speaker of the Assembly
100px
Incumbent
TBD
Party Affiliation
TBD
Legislative Branch of the Courellian Government
Term Length At the pleasure of the National Assembly
Office The Hall of the National Assembly
Seat Leoncavallo, EN, Courelli
The Hall of the National Assembly

The National Assembly is the legislature of Courelli.

The National Assembly is composed of Members, each of whom represents a single Province, with each Province being equally represented by 50 Members, regardless of its population. With 5 Provinces currently in the Republic, there are 250 Members of the National Assembly.

Composition
Courelli Parliament Chart.png
Party Political Position Leader National Assembly
Social Democratic Left 60px Joshua B. Thomas 132
Unity Center-Left 60px LEADER 48
Liberty Center-Right 60px LEADER 27
Green Environmentalist 60px LEADER 33
Conservative Right 60px LEADER 101
Jaenis National Special Interest 60px LEADER 9
Powers and Duties
Officers
Procedure

Judicial

Supreme Court

Province Courts

Municipal Courts

Provinces

Province Flag Abbreviation Capital City
Einaudi,
Federal District
Einaudi Flag.png EN Leoncavallo
Monteverdi Monteverdi Flag.png MV Falceri
Salieri Salieri Flag.png SL Bassano
Giordano Giordiano Flag.png GR Picci
Casella Casella Flag.png CS Monte Gabrieli

Sports

Soccer

Courellian National Soccer Team
Courelli Soccer Logo.png
Head Coach Gale Temple
Captain Jeremy Gordon
Home Stadium Sewell-Thomas Stadium
Falceri, MV, Courelli
Trigramme COU

Roster

Starting
Number Position Player Age Home Province
00 GK Kevin Lang 27 Einaudi Flag.png Einaudi
19 LB Vincent Page 23 Casella Flag.png Casella
22 CB Will Morrison 24 Giordiano Flag.png Giordiano
11 CB Patrick Yates 22 Casella Flag.png Casella
16 RB Gregory Webb 20 Monteverdi Flag.png Monteverdi
21 CM Joshua Wright 20 Giordiano Flag.png Giordiano
5 CM Terrence Bates 21 Salieri Flag.png Salieri
13 LW Ted Steele 29 Monteverdi Flag.png Monteverdi
2 AM Jeremy Gordon 28 Monteverdi Flag.png Monteverdi
3 RW Alex Ryan 25 Casella Flag.png Casella
7 CF Willie Jones 23 Einaudi Flag.png Einaudi
Substitutes
Number Position Player Age Home Province
6 GK Roland Edwards 27 Monteverdi Flag.png Monteverdi
17 CB Todd Roth 23 Casella Flag.png Casella
4 CB Matt Sloan 24 Einaudi Flag.png Einaudi
12 AM Danny Pittman 22 Salieri Flag.png Salieri
8 CF Justin Hardin 20 Giordiano Flag.png Giordiano

Formation

Courelli Soccer Formation.png

Kits

Home Kit Away Kit Goalkeeper Kit
Courelli Home Jersey Front.png
Courelli Home Shorts Front.png
Courelli Away Jersey Front.png
Courelli Away Shorts Front.png
Courelli Goalkeeper Jersey Front.png
Courelli Goalkeeper Shorts Front.png

Religions

Dalinism

History

Dalinism is a monotheistic (sometimes pantheistic) religion based upon the teachings of the Great Prophet Dalin. It is centered on the belief of a single divine entity, called God or the One God, that created the world and oversees the operation of the universe through human Intercessors.

The religion arose in the late Iron Age. As written sources do not exist before the Atlian Kingdom, an exact date is impossible to ascertain, but it is certain that the religion was practiced in several parts of Atlia during the conquest of King Jaspus, and was later adopted by Jaspus' son, Bengar, as the religion of the Atlian Kingdom. Today, Dalinism is the largest religion in Courelli.

The basic tenets and beliefs of Dalinism are expressed through a series of Creeds, which express belief in the One God, in his servants on Earth and in Heaven, who have lived, served and died in intercession for the sins of mankind. Belief, service, and dedication to the teachings of the Intercessors is said to allow for the remission of sin. The teachings of Dalin and the revelations given to him by God are expressed in the Dalinian Scrolls, although there have been many other Addendatory texts since Dalin's death.

Beliefs

Creeds

Worship

Avus Gustavson described 1st-century Dalinian liturgy in his letter to King Villim, and his description remains relevant to the basic structure of Dalinian liturgical worship:

"Ond an þe day hight saturday, al who live in cities or in þe country gaþer togeþer to that oone place, ond þe lives off þe saints art recounted, or þe prophecies spoken, als long als time permits; þen, when þe reader has ceased, he exhorts to þe imitation off þese good þings. Þen we al rise togeþer ond pray, ond, als we er seyde, when our prayer sy ended, bread ond ale ond water art brought, ond þe reader in as manere offers prayers ond þanksgivings, accord'ng to his ability, ond þe people assent; ond þere sy āc distribution to ech, ond āc participation off þat over which þanks hath been given, ond to þose who art absent āc portion sy sent by þe deacons. Ond þey who art well to dōn, ond willing, give hwæt ech þinks fit; ond hwæt sy collect'd sy deposit'd wiþ þe priest, who succors þe orphans ond widows ond þose who, þrough sickness or hwelc oþer cause, art in want, ond þose who art in bonds ond þe strangers sojourn'ng amonge us, ond in āc word takes rekke off al who art in ne'd."

Thus, as Gustavson described, Dalinians assemble for communal worship on Saturday, though other liturgical practices often occur outside this setting. Scripture readings are drawn from the Dalinian Scrolls or the Biographies. Instruction is given based on these readings, called a sermon. There are a variety of congregational prayers, including thanksgiving and intercession, which occur throughout the service and take a variety of forms including recited, responsive, silent, or sung. Creeds are regularly spoken or sung.

Some groups depart from this traditional liturgical structure. A division is often made between "High" church services, characterized by greater solemnity and ritual, and "Low" services, but even within these two categories there is great diversity in forms of worship.

Some services resemble concerts with rock and pop music, dancing, and use of multimedia. For groups which do not recognize priesthood distinct from ordinary believers, the services are generally led by a minister, preacher, or pastor. Still others may lack any formal leaders, either in principle or by local necessity. Some churches use only a cappella music, either on principle or by tradition.

Worship can be varied for special events like baptisms or weddings in the service or significant feast days. In many churches today, adults and children will separate for all or some of the service to receive age-appropriate teaching.

Ancient Atlian Mythology

Atlian mythology is the body of mythology of the Ancient Atlian people stemming from pre-Dalinian paganism, and continuing after the Dalinization of the culture and into the Courellian folklore of the modern period; these include myths in Atlian and other languages, as transmitted by Ancient Atlian people as well as other ancient ethnic groups, such of early Jaenisians. Atlian mythology consists of tales of various deities, beings, and heroes derived from numerous sources from both before and after the pagan period, including medieval manuscripts, archaeological representations, and folk tradition. Atlian mythology is primarily attested in dialects of Ancient Atlian, both spoken before and during the First Kingdom. As in many cultures' mythologies, Atlian mythology has in the past been believed to be, at least in part, a factual recording of history. Thus, in the study of historical Atlian culture, many of the stories that have been told regarding characters and events which have been written or told of the distant past have a double tradition: one which presents a more historicized and one which presents a more mythological version.

Most of the surviving mythology centers on the plights of the Gods and their interaction with various other beings, such as humanity, the Hynaldin, and friends, lovers, or foes of the Gods. The cosmos in Atlian mythology consists of a dichotomy of order and chaos, with a swirling elemental vortex that flanks a central cosmological tree holding up the earth, Rutwoltrigg (root-WAHL-trig). Units of time and elements of the cosmology are personified as deities or beings. Various forms of a creation myth are recounted, where the world is grown from the sleeping minds of Older Gods.

The Gods of Ancient Atlia