|The Republic of|
|12th World Assembly Delegate|
23 October 2017 – 15 July 2018
|Succeeded by||North American Republics|
|15th and 17th Minister of Domestic Affairs|
21 June 2017 – 13 September 2017
|Preceded by||Freeland Newworldia|
|Succeeded by||New Ireland and Wales|
1 August 2018 – 12 December 2018
|Delegate||North American Republics, Goncar|
North American Republics (Elected)|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs|
Assumed office |
12 December 2018
|Founded||17 April 2017|
"Nobilitatis virtus non stemma character"
"UNNAMED RIGHT NOW""
|Government|| Constitutional republic|
|Area||127,490.04 sq. miles|
|Pop. Density||251.7 people/sq. mile|
|Currency||Courellian Dollar (CRD)|
Courelli, officially the Republic of Courelli, is a constitutional democratic republic comprised of five Provinces: Einaudi, Monteverdi, Salieri, Giordano, and Casella. It is located in the southeast area of the Social Liberal Union, and has a population of roughly 32 million people. Courelli has a land area of 127,490.04 sq. miles, with 251.7 people per sq. mile. The capital, Leoncavallo, is also the oldest city in the country, and was the seat of the Kingdom of Atlia (colloquially the "First Kingdom") in the 1st century CE. The nation's motto, "Nobilitatis virtus non stemma character", literally translates "Virtue, not pedigree, is the mark of character" - emphasizing the nation's anti-aristocratic, individualistic, democratic values.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Government
- 3.1 Executive
- 3.2 Legislative
- 3.3 Judicial
- 4 Diplomacy
- 5 Religions
The Bronze and Iron Age
|The Bronze and Iron Age|
|c. 2500 BCE - c. 60 BCE|
|c. 600 BCE||Hillfort construction boom.|
|c. 200 BCE||Dalinism begins to gain support.|
The earliest history of Courelli begins in the Bronze Age, around 2500 BCE on the Atlian Peninsula, with the first appearance of bronze objects in the archaeological record. Presumably, earlier human occupation of the peninsula existed, but as of yet little archaeological evidence has been found aside from certain tomb structures that provide little information on the nature of those cultures. Early signs of humans coincide with the appearance of the characteristic Atlian culture. The Atlian people focused on fishing and hunting. They remained highly isolated in their early history; in fact, they believed that there was nothing beyond their land. The Bronze Age Atlian culture is highly focused on the individual as opposed to communities, with signs of the culture primarily being focused on large tombs and burial mounds, suggesting the rise of increasingly powerful elites. Settlement became increasingly permanent and intensive.
The Iron Age is conventionally said to begin around 800 BCE. The overall picture of continuity suggests this was not accompanied by any substantial movement of population; evidence of life in this time suggests the development of the early forerunners of the later First Kingdom. On the whole, burials largely disappeared across Atlia, with the dead disposed of in a way which is archaeologically invisible. Cremation is widely cited as the most likely scenario, evidenced most famously by a structure known only as The Altar, a man-made structure thought to be a proto-crematorium. Atlian society is believed to have shifted its focus towards family and community during this time, evidenced by the rise in prevalence of medium to large residential structures called hillforts. Hillforts were known since the Late Bronze Age, but a huge number were constructed in the period 600–400 BCE, particularly in the North. After about 400 BCE, new hillforts largely ceased to be built and a large number cease to be regularly inhabited, while others become heavily occupied, suggesting a degree of regional centralization.
At around 200 BCE, a religion known as Dalinism started to gain support. While the exact dates of the life of the religion's prophet, Dalin, are unknown, he was believed to have resided near present-day Leoncavallo. The development of local written language begins primarily with written religious texts, including prototypical forms of the current Dalinian Scrolls and certain addendum texts. Folk religions would continue to oppose Dalinism for centuries following, forming the center of some of the greatest Atlian conflicts of the Medieval era.
The First Kingdom
|The First Kingdom|
|c. 60 BCE - c. 200 CE|
|c. 60 BCE||Creation of written Atlian language.|
|12 BCE||The armies of Jaspus, Godan, and Ruthgar defeat the armies of Unik the Bald, solidifying Jaspus' authority; Kingdom of Atlia established and Jaspus crowned King.|
|16 CE||King Jaspus dies; son Bengar crowned King.|
|20 CE||Presciite Rebellion; first internal armed conflict of the Dalinian Church.|
|35 CE||Entirety of Atlian mainland unified under the Crown.|
|192 CE||Kingdom of Atlia falls after invasion by Jaenis natives and outbreak of Red Fever.|
The earliest examples of written Atlian occur around 60 BCE, and coincide with the beginning of the First Kingdom. Jaspus, who would become the first King of the Atlian Kingdom, began gathering together local tribes under his banner. He began his campaigns in a location near the mouth of the Great River, close to modern Leoncavallo, where he conquered his brother's hillfort with help from two local tribal chiefs, Godan and Ruthgar.
Following his brother's death, he and his allies turned south and raided villages along the coast until they reached what would become Aleotti, where they faced the armies of Unik the Bald in 12 BCE. Defeating their enemies through clever tactics, such as utilizing the hilly landscape and morning fog to hide their numbers, Jaspus' army routed the army of Unik. Over the next four years, the territory was consolidated and King Jaspus led a campaign into the east, where he subjugated two more tribes. By 3 CE the border of the Atlian Kingdom had been pushed back as far as Black Hill. By 16 CE, it covered all of Atlia east of Aleotti. King Jaspus died in 17 CE, leaving the throne and crown to his son Bengar.
At the same time, the Dalinian faith saw its first major schism. Focused on questions related to who was the foremost of the Intercessors, three major groups arose between 10 BCE and 5 BCE. The first was centered on the writings of Pamius, and became known as the Pamisians. The Pamisians believed that, while Dalin was the Great Prophet, in heaven all intercessors were considered equal, and therefore none should take precedence in worship. The second group were the Presciites, who believed that St. Gil, who Dalin described as "first of God's chosen", and the earliest Intercessor mentioned in the Dalinian Scrolls, was also the highest in precedence in heaven. They pointed to the "first of God's chosen" passage not as a description of chronology, but of favor. The final group was the Prophescians, who believed that Dalin, as the Great Prophet and Deliverer of the Word, was the highest in God's favor. By this point in history, Bengar had converted to Dalinism, and the Church was a central power in the Atlian Kingdom.
As debates grew more and more expansive and bitter, the divide threatened to tear the Church apart, and with it the fledgling Kingdom. As such, Bengar turned to the Archon of the Church to oversee the matter. However, the Archon was a friend of Jacobi, the de facto leader of the Prophescians. While the Archon called a council of the Church, the debate was clearly slanted in favor of the Prophescians. Half the Presciite bishops were barred from entering the debate. As such, the Prophescian doctrine was widely accepted as Church canon. The Pamisians managed to retain their positions, but the Presciites were excommunicated from the Church.
The Presciites were angered by this; they took to arms in 20 CE. Bengar, at the behest of the Archon, turned his armies upon them and the Presciite Rebellion was quelled. So influential was this uprising, that most versions of the Dalinian Scrolls have the Book of Gil removed and any mention of him stricken or demonized. This left two main branches of the faith in terms of belief and doctrine: the Pamisians and the Prophescians.
Following his father's death, Bengar continued the Atlian conquest. By 35 CE, the entirety of the land was unified under the Atlian crown. Written records at this time are focused on accurate genealogies and death records, suggesting a cultural focus on birthrights. Legal structures for succession law begin appearing around 55 CE, further lending credence to this theory.
The Atlian Kingdom was marked by increasing regional centralization and rapid overhauls in technology and science. However, the Atlian Kingdom was doomed to fall in 192 AD, as invaders from Jaenis Isle pushed south; first taking over several northern villages, but eventually reaching the Atlian heartland. While the Atlian forces repelled the invaders, the Jaenisians had brought with them the Red Fever, a plague to which the Atlians had no resistance. The ensuing spread of pestilence caused centralization to break apart as more and more people moved back to the countryside to avoid the centers of plague. This caused revolts amongst those who remained, eventually leading to the dissolution of the Atlian Kingdom as population numbers dwindled.
The Inter-Kingdom Age
|The Inter-Kingdom Age|
|c. 200 CE - c. 615 CE|
|401||The Provite Council was formed by the Dalinian Church to discuss the legitimacy of the Letters of Hart Isle.|
|c. 600||The last of the nomadic tribes settled, marking the end of nomadic life on the Atlian mainland.|
|603 - 611||Dalinian nobles and crusaders invaded the Atlian countryside and nearby territories, crushing pagan worship in the Wars of Conversion.|
The next four hundred years were marked by a slow rebuilding of the population. During this period, many of the technological breakthroughs of the First Kingdom were lost, most notably advanced irrigation techniques. The nation fell apart into small, feudal states, which changed drastically over the tumultuous time that followed. Several times, the nobility in charge of various regions of the nation attempted to rebuild the Atlian Kingdom, to varying degrees of success, but always failing in the end. By 600 AD, the various states had settled into a more consistent, basic layout, vaguely mirroring former tribal groupings.
These four hundred years were also marked by increasing Church influence in the day-to-day governance of the people. The Church was one of the few institutions remaining from the First Kingdom, and therefore one of the closest proxies for a central government of Atlia that existed at the time. As such, the internal politics and workings of the Church became increasingly important and tumultuous.
The first major feud in the Church occurred in 401 CE. Since the early decades of the 1st Century, Church elders had debated the legitimacy of the Letters of Hart Isle, by the prophet Malcom, as Church doctrine. The letters prescribed the basic tenets of Church functions, and had been widely accepted as the basis for many Churches in the area. However, by 401, an increasingly popular group began debating the legitimacy of using the writings, as they didn't come from Dalin himself. At the center of the debate was inclusion of public prayer in Church worship. To quote the First Letter of Hart Isle, "You shall stand as one and lift your voices in exultation to God's glory, for he has provided for you." This seemed to fly in the face of Dalin's prescription for prayer in the First Prophecy: "One who shouts in the market square of their love for God is no true believer, for he seeks only the acceptance of flawed matter. Blessed are they who keep God in their heart."
At the center of this debate were the twin Churches of Fronte and Melbias. The debate grew heated, with violence between followers of the two sides in several places, and so the Provite Council was formed. After a week of debate, it was agreed that only Intercessors could make claims on the control of the Church, but the Archon also agreed that Malcolm showed all the signs of an Intercessor, and so he was proclaimed an Intercessor, and his letters were collected and published.
The other events that marked both Church and state were the series of holy wars that ranged across Atlia at this time. Traditional pagan worship was seen as heretical by the Dalinian faith, and crusades to defeat pagan lords and convert them to Dalinism were common. Such crusades and wars are at the center of many stories. Called the Wars of Conversion, they form the central cultural image of the Inter-Kingdom Age for most modern Courellians, romanticized as they are due to the imagery of the "gallant knight", which later generations would add into the tales.
The Second Kingdom
|The Second Kingdom|
|c. 615 CE - c. 1150 CE|
|619||Willem Luecer conquers Jaenis Isle and the Atlian mainland; establishes Kingdom of Lueceria declares himself King; the Luecerian Orthodox Church splits from the Dalinian Church, and the position of Archon-on-Lueceria is created.|
|952 - 980||Territorial skirmishes with the Eastern tribes; ended in tribal surrender.|
|967||Leoncavallo was declared the capital of the Kingdom of Leuceria.|
|1011 - 1013||The Singer Rebellion; ended at the First Battle of Leoncavallo with the defeat and exile of rebel leader Harald Leucer.|
|1016||Rebel leader Harald Leucer executed on order of King Marcus Leucer.|
In 619 AD, the Jaenisians attempted another series of raids on the Atlian mainland, which were repelled. In revenge for the death of his brother in the invasion, Willem Luecer formed an alliance with six other Dukes and set out on ships to Jaenis Isle. There, the Atlians turned the tables on their attackers, and eventually captured the Isle. Subjugating its people, Luecer renamed Jaenis Isle the Kingdom of Lueceria, and, 7 months later, used his political acumen and the ships captured at Jaenis Isle to attack an unprepared and weakened northern populace of the Atlian mainland. At the same time, he forcibly converted the Jaenisian populace to Dalinism in the Last War of Conversion, and gave his religious advisor the title of Archon-on-Lueceria. This caused the first long-term denominational split of the Dalinian Church, forming the Luecerian Orthodox Church.
With the help of his allies in the south and his own attacks from the north, Willem conquered much of Atlia under the banner of the Kingdom of Lueceria. This began the Second Kingdom, which would last five hundred years.
Willem Luecer died in 649 AD, and was succeeded by his son, Drommand Luecer. Drommand was a capable military commander in his own right, and led a series of brutal, expansionist attacks on the surrounding lands. While internal conflicts between the rapidly increasing number of dukes, lords, and barons were common, the Crown of Lueceria held stable power for the duration of the Second Kingdom.
For the next 300 years, the Kingdom was officially at peace. However, border skirmishes continued. In 952 AD, towards the end of King Bansio’s reign, rebellions began occurring. With the army forced to deal with the rebellions in the South, the tribal forces in the East rallied and surged over the borders. Combat was not swift, and the war was defined by quickly shifting and changing borders. Finally, around 980 AD, the Eastern tribes were pushed far enough back that they surrendered, making another long-term peace treaty.
The greatest divisions at the time were between sects of the Dalinian faith. The greatest controversy was related to the division between Luecerian Orthodoxy and the Dalinian Church. The Archon-on-Lueceria and the Dalinian Archon would battle for years, both seeing themselves as the true leader and heart of the Church. While early on the throne aligned itself with the Luecerian Orthodox faith, this changed over the years due to marriages with Dalinian nobility. In 967 CE, the throne of Lueceria officially left the Luecerian Orthodox Church with the capital's move to Leoncavallo, much to the dismay of the Orthodox Church. The Archon-on-Lueceria would work with the nobility over the coming decades to attempt to reinstall an Orthodox king.
In 1011 CE, this came to a head with the Singer Rebellions. Harald Luecer, a cousin of then-King Marcus Luecer, rose up with the backing of the Orthodox Church and a collection of nobles, and attempted to take the throne by force. His defeat in 1013 CE at the First Battle of Leoncavallo led to his exile on St. Margaret's Isle. He would rise again two years later, leading to his execution in 1016 CE. The end of the Singer Rebellions would lead to a period of peace and prosperity for the nation that would last for a century, marked only by minor political and religious squabbles that would set the formation of the modern Dalinian Church in motion.
The Reformative Age
In 1157 CE, a matter of succession debate caused the nation to split again. Corvin Luecer, the eldest son of then-King Barriveld Luecer, but was actually the King's third child, after Genevieve Luecer and Juliette Averly (nee. Luecer). While Juliette had married, been widowed and joined a convent, Genevieva was still active and had spent much of her life assisting in court and crown affairs, while Corvin had been sent away to be tutored. With the death of their father, Corvin claimed he had the right to the throne, while Genevieve claimed the same. While technically at that time no woman had ever inherited the throne, there was nothing in the law stating that she couldn't inherit. Corvin's supporters claimed that he had the right as eldest son; Genevieve's claimed she had the right by practice and as eldest child. Religious divides again came to the fore: the Luecerian Orthodox Church heavily supported Corvin, and riled up their followers to also support him. This led to civil war, which ended at the Second Battle of Leoncavallo. The signing of the Leoncavallo Accord split the nation into two principalities: the Principality of Courelli in the east, under Genevieve, and the Principality of Leos in the west, under Corvin.
Over the course of his reign, a combination of higher taxes, unsuccessful wars and conflict with the Luecerian Orthodox Church had made Prince Corvin unpopular with his dukes, and in 1190 some of the most important decided to rebel against him. On July 13, 1191, he met the rebels at the Principality’s capital, Falceri, to seal the Script of Lords, which imposed legal limits on the Prince's personal powers. Because he had sealed under duress, however, Corvin received approval from the Archon-on-Lueceria to break his word as soon as hostilities had ceased, provoking a Courellian invasion by Prince Matthias Luecer, Genevieve's son and Corvin's nephew. Corvin traveled around the country to oppose the rebel forces, directing, among other operations, an eight-month siege of the rebel-held Wertham Castle. Corvin died in battle at the age of 51, and Matthias assumed the throne of a newly united nation, now under the banner of the Kingdom of Courelli.
In 1232, under King Fredrich, Matthias’ son, the Kingdom of Courelli willingly adopted the Script of Lords, which became the basis for its Constitution and National Assembly. Meanwhile, the Eastern tribes were dissolving under the pressure of their own feuding lords, first losing control of their eastern reaches to rebellion in 1221, then their southern-most territories in a series of conflicts between 1227 and 1237. The Kingdom of Courelli bided its time under the rule of Fredrich, and waited for the Eastern tribes to exhaust themselves in a series of internal conflicts.
Finally, in 1246, Fredrich turned his forces eastward and began capturing eastern territories. The wars were swift and decisive. By 1254, the whole land was united, save for Jaenis Isle.
This became the status quo for the next 200 years. The Luecer dynasty reestablished itself, and used this period to begin efforts at unifying the nation under a single culture. This involved the creation of extensive road systems, the spreading of Dalinian Church doctrine eastward, and a requirement for a unity of language. This became a period of peace and growth for the nation. In 1381, however, the Church faced a crisis as the Movine Heresy began to gain a foothold. The Church leveraged its power on the crown, but was faced with a cold shoulder. This led to the excommunication of several important lords and the brief Movine War, which lasted three months. At the end, the role of Archon of the Dalinian Church was dissolved and incorporated into the role of the crown. The excommunicated lords were absolved and allowed back into the fold of the Church, and the Movine Heresy was squashed.
The Imperialist Age
|The Imperialist Age|
|c. 1450 CE - c. 1650 CE|
|1494||King Henry asks for Jaenisian Princess' hand in marriage, but was refused; War of Jaenis Isle began;|
|1500 - 1505||Jaenis Isle conquered; Courellian overseas territories consolidated; Bradley Shipping Company founded.|
|1510||King Henry dies; James becomes King.|
|1511||King James' uncle, Edward Adenbury, tampers with late-King Henry's will; obtains Letters of Patent appointing himself Royal Regent to King James; assumes the title of Protector.|
|1513||Adenbury killed by Jaspus Gray, who assumed the title of Protector for himself, with the support of the National Assembly.|
|1526||King James restored to throne.|
|1533||The Six Lords Act enacted; established the Council of Lords, the predecessor to the modern Cabinet.|
|1550||First Courellian colony established in Wellsia.|
|1567||King James dies; Marcus becomes King.|
|1568||King Marcus dies; Peter becomes King.|
|1601||Indentured Servitude Act enacted.|
|1608||Invasion of Harndon launched with Battle of Gonth Bay.|
|1632||Victory declared in conquest of Harndon.|
In 1494, King Henry of Courelli asked for the hand of the neighboring Jaenisian Prince's daughter in marriage, to seal an alliance, but was refused. Taking this insult to heart, he called for war. Courellian ships sailed northwards, and the War of Jaenis Isle began. Courelli swept through the island, and by 1500 had conquered it entirely.
Starting in 1505, having consolidated its Jaenisian holdings, the crown turned its attention outward. They began sending out explorers to nearby lands, the most notable of whom were Jasper Gray, a conman-turned-sailor, and Lord Mardo Bradley, a wealthy merchant. Gray used his silver-tongue and skill for naval command to establish several colonies in the surrounding region, while Bradley eventually established the Bradley Shipping Company, which would become an important force in the nearly 400 years of Courellian imperialism, especially in colonization of Harndon.
Gray would eventually return to Courelli to accept a lordship and commendation from the crown, and served under King Henry as chief naval advisor, and eventual regent for King James. Although he showed piety and intelligence, James was only nine years old when he took the throne in 1510. His uncle, Edward Adenbury, tampered with Henry’s will, and obtained letters patent giving him much of the power of a monarch by March 1511. He took the title of Protector. Whilst some see him as a high-minded idealist, his stay in power culminated in a crisis in 1513, when many counties of the kingdom were up in protest. Adenbury, disliked by the National Assembly for his autocratic methods, was removed from power by Gray. Gray proceeded to adopt the power of Protector for himself, but his methods were more conciliatory and the National Assembly accepted him.
Simultaneously, the Bradley Shipping Company was expanding its reach and influence, establishing itself as a primary political and trade force in many nations, acting as an arm of the Courellian Crown. Overseas, they began integrating themselves into the local political networks. Using their wealth, they were able to leverage their way into positions of influence in the nation, and over the next century would act as a destabilizing force for local rulership. In 1550, Courellian settlers would establish the first colonies in Wellsia.
During this time, the basics of the landed gentry system began to gain deeper roots. Systems were established that provided greater and greater powers to the aristocracy, most notably in the functions of the legislative system. The Six Lords Act of 1533 established the basis for future Courellian governance in the form of the initial systems of the Council of Lords and its power over the National Assembly. The reign of James was seen as a golden age for Courelli. Issues which had divided the country for hundreds of years, including language and religion, had finally homogenized to the point of seeing a united Courellian presence and culture; internal peace was at a high. This allowed for an expansion of the powers of government, but due to the Six Lords' Act, the power of the nobility was maintained. James died in 1567, and was succeeded first by his eldest son, Marcus, who died the following year, and then by Peter, who would rule until 1588.
Courellian imperialism didn't truly grow to a head until the early 1600s. Before this time, the focus of Courellian growth was purely business based, avoiding military conflict if at all possible. Starting in 1601, however, Courelli began building up its naval power for rapid outward expansion. Utilizing trade routes established by the Bradley Shipping Company, Courelli allowed would-be colonies to grow dependent on Courellian trade, before severing the lines and utilizing naval might to force a stranglehold on local powers. Thus, Courellian imperialism began in earnest. A perfect example of this operation was in Harndon, where the BSC began leveraging their wealth and trade to begin controlling King Lvijas. This inflamed local passions and caused Harndon to tear itself apart. The BSC simply withdrew to their island fortresses to wait out the instability. When things settled, Harndon was still weak from the divide, and the Courellian Navy arrived on the coast. They took several coastal towns, and set up a blockade on the country, which they used as a foothold to walk over the now-chaotic area.
Having waited for their trade blockade to take its toll, the Courellian Navy struck. Entering the Sea of Monwe a day before the spring equinox, the navy timed their assault with the Harndonians' "Kiko celebrations", hoping to catch the tribespeople unaware. The Harndonians, however, had stationed scout vessels along the north-eastern edge of the Sea of Monwe, one of which was able to flee back to the mainland before the rest were blown out of the water.
The Courellian Navy then turned their sights on Quechkhonia to the south-west, and set sail in hopes to overrun the Hardonian city. A small Harndonian warfleet of 24 vessels moved to engage the navy in the Gonth Bay, which was blanketed in dense fog, allowing the smaller Harndonian ships to sneak towards the Courellian fleet.
A diary entry from a sailor on the Courellian vessel Luecerian Vengeance give details on what happened next:
- We were sailing through the dense fog, relying on our compases and previous headings to lead us to the pagan's great temples - or whatever they called them. It was totally quiet, apart from the creak of the ship beneath us and the lapping waves against the hull. Everyone was tense. Suddenly, we heard screams from starboard of us, away from the shore. The breeze carried the voices of my panicked brothers, pleading not to die. Flashes of light lit the fog, and we initially thought that was our cannons firing at something, but the colour was wrong: it was a luminous green mixed with bright orange. Without warning, something blew up at our bow, throwing a fiery spray the same colour as the flashes before. The spray landed on some of the sailors near me, and they died screaming, unable to wash the hellish fluid off, even using the water we had in buckets on the deck.
- The screaming to the right of us got louder, and flashes of both our gunfire and their chemical fire lit up on all sides. Our starboard cannons roared, firing blindly in the direction of the screams. We rushed over to that side, clutching our muskets, but we couldn't see anything we could confidently fire at. I've never been in a naval battle so confused before. It was awful.
The flanking attack by the Harndonians was a success, spreading fear and panic into the Courellian fleet. Fires spread onto many Courellian ships, with 15 being totally destroyed or ablaze within the first 10 minutes. After adjusting to the initial surprise, however, the tide turned: the rest of the Courellian fleet fired blindly into the direction of the flankers with grapeshot, decimating both Courellian and Harndonian ships and troops. By the time the bay fell silent, no Harndonian vessel was left, and the Courellians had lost 22 ships, and approximately half their troops.
The Courellian Navy then turned their attention to shore. Small landing craft were sent to investigate the coast, with orders to return if the area was clear. After 2 hours, they still hadn't been seen. Taking this as the only clue they were going to get, the fleet fired their cannons onto the fog-shrouded shore, again using grapeshot. The Harndonians were massacred. Those who survived fled, taking what was left of their fallen home with them, and disappeared into the forest. Horrified at the losses they had sustained, the Courellians nevertheless continued south-west, until they arrived at the site of the Five Temples. Though expecting resistance, there was no-one to be found. The 5 Temples were empty, apart from the fabled riches that the Courellian Empire was determined to gain.
Over the course of the year, more ships were sent to Harndon, and most managed to cross the now-infamous Sea of Monwe, and it's hidden tribesmen with chemical firearms. The Courellians marched onwards, capturing more villages, and destroying native shrines. There was no physical resistance by the Harndonians, but the natives resisted in their own, unique way - in every settlement the Courellians came across, traps, some crude, made with sharpened sticks and faeces; others with the same chemical weaponry that laid waste to the fleet in the Battle of Gonth Bay, lay in wait, ready for an unsuspecting soldier to open that door, or to step on that path. The effect on morale was devastating: troops recruited to go to Harndon were known as the "Unlucky Legions" amongst the Courellian people, and the offensive was slow.
Despite their difficulties, the long, agonising campaign was declared a success in 1632, when the Courellian Empire had decided it owned enough of the productive areas to stop expansion. Not particularly interested in pushing further west since they had access to the resources they intended to capture, the Courellians spent the next century consolidating their power and imposing Courellian law over the area, including teaching of Dalinism and building of Dalinian churches. Settlements either built by Courellians, or expanded and made permanent by them, became islands of security in a sea of threat: it was impossible to tell if you would make it to your destination alive if you dared to venture out of a settlement.
The Formation of the Republic
The rapid expansion of the Courellian Empire was stayed in the late 1600s by the Courellian Civil War. In 1653, A large body of revolutionaries, dubbed Republicans, dissatisfied with the monarchy, conducted a series of attacks on the forces of King Kay, the sitting monarch of the Kingdom of Courelli. In a grueling seven-year Civil War, the Royalists and Republicans met in many bloody battles, which culminated in January 1660 at the Third Battle of Leoncavallo, where the Royalist Army was defeated. King Kay fled to Jaenis Isle, but was eventually handed over to the National Assembly in 1662. He escaped, and the war continued, although it ended quickly, with the Republican Army quickly securing the country. The capture and subsequent trial of Kay led to his beheading in May 1663 at the Town Square in Leoncavallo, and Courelli was established as a republic.
Going forward, the National Assembly desired to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, and negotiated the Constitution of the Republic of Courelli. Under this Constitution, the National Assembly was a central authority without any legislative power. It could pass its own resolutions, determinations, and regulations, but not any laws, and could not impose any taxes or enforce regulations upon its citizens. This institutional design reflected how Courellians believed the deposed system of Crown ought to have functioned, with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire nation.
Regional governments, now called Provinces, were out from under monarchic rule, and assigned some formerly-royal prerogatives (making war, receiving ambassadors) to the National Assembly; the remaining prerogatives were lodged within their own respective Provincial governments.
With peace now at hand, the Provinces turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1678, Courellians found their continental borders besieged and weak, and their respective economies in crises as neighboring Provinces agitated trade rivalries with one another. They witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their commerce preyed upon by Pirates, and their Civil War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed.
Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Einaudi and Monteverdi at the Picci Conference in 1685, Einaudi called for a conference between all the Provinces, set for September 1686 in Leoncavallo, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms. When the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other Provinces, NAME led the Giordiano delegation in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Constitution, to be held the next spring. Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until NAME and NAME succeeded in securing NAME's attendance to the convention as a delegate for Salieri.
When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1687, the delegations in attendance brought with them an accumulated experience over a diverse set of institutional arrangements between legislative and executive branches from within their respective Provincial governments. Most Provinces maintained a weak executive without veto or appointment powers, elected annually by the legislature to a single term only, sharing power with an executive council, and countered by a strong legislature. Monteverdi offered the greatest exception, having a strong, unitary governor with veto and appointment power elected to a three-year term, and eligible for reelection to an indefinite number of terms thereafter. It was through the closed-door negotiations at the Convention that the executive framed in the Constitution as we know it today, which would be adopted in August 1689, emerged.
The Fall of the Empire
|The Fall of the Empire|
|c. 1700 CE - c. 1805 CE|
|c. 1710||Pirate Admiral Perrigrine Young and his forces battle the forces of Courellian Admiral Wilson Kirkham at the Battle of Black Fog; 300+ pirates captured and executed; the Pirate Wars begin.|
|1731||Pagan extremists attempt to assassinate the Governor; the Wheatfield Crisis began.|
|1742||Slaves across Courelli took arms against their masters in the Great Slave Revolt; farms ground to a halt; the Governor issued the Emancipation Order.|
|1746 - 1748||Pirates attack and conquer the Wellsian colonies.|
|1748 - 1753||Colonists rebel against the national government, but are eventually crushed.|
|1792||Courellian pirate hunters sink Ithian merchant vessel; Ithia sinks Courelli's St. Albert; the two nations fight a swift war; Ithia takes Jaenis Isle.|
The 1700s were marked by a series of international conflicts. As a result of lucrative Courellian trade with its colonies and allies, the waters surrounding Courelli were becoming increasingly prone to piracy. The Republic made it a priority to combat the increased pirate activity, beginning the continuous and frequent Pirate Wars of the 1700s and early 1800s.
The bloodiest of the Pirate Wars occurred at their outset, between 1710 and 1720. Courelli had formed a special navy of pirate hunters and privateers to combat the growing threat to their trade dominion. Famous pirate admiral (and former captain of the Courellian Navy) Perrigrine Young gathered together a force rivaling the size of the whole of the Courellian Navy. The pirate hunting brigade was forced into a decisive conflict with the pirate armada at the Battle of Black Fog, so-called because primary sources claim that the sea was "so choked by the smoke from the cannons it seemed God had decided to send in a black fog". The pirate armada was only broken by the sudden arrival of help from Courellian naval genius, Admiral Wilson Kirkham. While Captain Young himself escaped the end of the conflict and would later retire in Anaaxes, it is said that more than 300 pirates were executed after the battle and dumped overboard to feed "an army of sharks", although the number has been debated in modern times.
As Courelli became more secular, religious groups became more extreme. On December 24, 1731, pagan rebels attempted the assassination of the Governor. The six rebels managed to sneak into the Capitol building under the guise of service staff. Armed with daggers, one of the would-be assassins managed to stab the Governor twice before being taken down by guards. All of the rebels in the Capitol were captured, and the Governor survived the stabbing. This led to the Wheatfield Crisis, wherein known pagans had their rights suppressed and were executed en masse.
In 1742, Courelli faced the Great Slave Revolt. Slaves across the homeland, emboldened by propositions presented by Hellingsford Freeman and Lucas Potvin in their travels across Courelli, took arms against their masters, who were primarily members of the landed gentry. The revolts started in Falceri and rapidly spread across Courelli, particularly to the rice paddies of the south. Homeland agricultural production ground nearly to a halt. By September of that year, the domestic economy faced such a crisis that the Governor issued the Emancipation Order, officially banning slavery in Courelli. While slaves were freed, many wound up signing themselves into indentured servitude over the following years, essentially returning them to their previous standing.
In 1746, pirate forces swept into the Wellsian colonies. Over the next two years, the most disastrous of the Pirate Wars would be waged, forcing back the Courellian army and eventually ousting the Courellian colonial government. The pirates would conquer the Wellsian colonies and establish their own nation in 1748.
In order to pay for the increasingly expensive Pirate Wars, the Government once again began raising taxes in the colonies. Colonists took this as an excuse to begin raising armies, and in 1748, revolted against the Courellian government. Local Courellian soldiers were rapidly pushed back to their well-defended ports, which were besieged by the rebels. The rebel navy moved in and trapped the Courellian forces in many of their port cities. According to folk tales, one brave Courellian soldier, John Lockesley, swam past the rebel navy in the dead of night and stole a rowboat, with which he rowed home to warn Courelli. The accuracy of this tale is minuscule at best. It is more likely that loyalist infiltrators of the rebels themselves smuggled Lockesley out of the country themselves. When all seemed lost, the Courellian navy arrived and trapped the rebel navy between them and land, tearing apart the rebel forces. Morale broken, the rebels fell back, and were defeated by the Courellian army in 1753.
In 1792, a Courellian pirate hunter mistakenly sunk an Ithian merchant vessel off the coast of Jaenis Isle. This was followed by a retaliatory strike from the Kingdom of Ithia, sinking the Courellian merchant vessel St. Albert. The two nations declared war in August of 1792, leading to the Ithian invasion of Jaenis Isle later that year. The war was swift and decisive on the side of Ithia due to the fact that Jaenis Isle was sparsely defended and Courelli was militarily spread thin across the Empire.
Ithia held the isle until 1803, at which point it pulled off the island due to its lack of strategic importance and the fact that it was an economic sink to defend an isle that sparsely populated and with no major resources just for the sake of an old grudge. With the Courellian Empire already beginning to weaken, Courelli allowed Jaenis Isle to retain independence as a "culturally independent territory within the sphere of Courellian dominion."
The Industrial Revolution
|The Industrial Revolution|
|c. 1805 CE - c. 1900 CE|
|1811||Bradley Shipping Company becomes Bradley Machinery Company.|
|1849||Womens' Rights Act enacted; established full and equal political, civil, and property rights for women.|
|c. 1850s||Courellian Silver Rush; inundated with cruel practices from the Leoncavallo Mining Corporation in the first sign of corporate power overreach in Courellian history.|
|1855||Marijuana boom as National Assembly passed stiff taxes on alcoholic beverages.|
|c. 1860s||First Courellian Rail Network constructed, making it possible to travel from Leoncavallo to the westernmost tip of Courelli on a single ticket.|
|c. 1880s||Cholera outbreak; massive medical infrastructure improvements.|
|c. 1890s||Famine, war, disaster causes Great Jaenisian Misery; 40,000 die.|
On the homefront, Courelli was focused on the development of its interior. Courellian culture, which had always been centered on the ideals of work ethic and efficiency, were swift to embrace industrial reform, and began an industrial revolution in the early 1800s. This movement was guided by the highly influential Bradley Shipping Company, which over the first decade of the 19th Century would shift from its trade dominance to manufacturing, becoming the Bradley Machinery Company in 1811. The internationally accepted "Courellian identity" was cemented at this time: hard-working, financially motivated and resourceful.
This period of rapid industrialization brought with it systems that would remain entrenched for the coming centuries. The indentured service, workhouse and debtors prisons systems came to be intertwined in an intrinsic fashion. Banks and large-scale, nobility-owned corporations started coming into existence. The national interest in manufacturing exploded. The city of Leoncavallo’s population tripled in a period of five years as its factories became central to the Courellian economy.
1848 saw reforms in voting rights, as the battle for women's suffrage began. Women marched on the National Assembly, one of the earliest examples of non-violent protest in Courellian history. In 1849, the Women's Rights Act passed, and women were given full and equal voting, property ownership and employment rights as men. This sowed a seed for further rights reforms in coming decades, and was the first glimmer of anti-aristocratic sentiment that would come to grow over the next century-and-a-half.
The 1850s were marked by the Courellian Silver Rush. While silver had always been available, a particularly large vein was discovered in 1852, which led thousands to rush eastward in the hopes of capturing their fortunes. Mining corporations began selling prospecting licenses for land owned by their holdings, and developed legal teams for finding and prosecuting illegal prospectors. Known as Pellmans, after Louis Pellman of the Leoncavallo Mining Corporation, their ruthlessness and brutality was well-noted, and some historians point to this moment as the first sign of corporate power overreach in Courelli.
From 1840 to 1860, marijuana growth and usage came to prominence in Courelli. Known as "soft opium", its use was common among the lower classes, particularly factory workers. It's usage exploded in 1855, when the National Assembly passed large taxes on beer, rendering the beverage unaffordable to most people. Marijuana became the post-work relaxant of choice in Courelli, far surpassing alcohol and tobacco in that regard. While its use dwindled in the late 1860s and 1870s, its use would be considered normal thereafter.
The 1860s also saw the completion of the original Courellian Rail Network, with it then possible to travel from Leoncavallo in the southeast to the western-most tip of Courelli non-stop on a single ticket. The run became famous when it was raced by six men on horseback, leading to the death of two engineers in a rockslide, and one of the horsemen to drowning during a river crossing.
At the same time, a series of cholera outbreaks would run rampant across the mainland of Courelli. These outbreaks reached epidemic levels over the years between 1880 and 1883, before finally subsiding. Following the epidemic, Courelli began large-scale infrastructure development to combat future disease. Huge building projects began, including construction of then-modern sewer systems, hospitals and transport systems. Courellian infrastructure was so impressive that the nation’s engineering and industrial expertise was the envy of many other nations around the globe. At the same time, the resources, troops and will to hold onto colonial holdings in Harndon simply no longer existed. Courelli made the bitter decision to withdraw entirely: families, soldiers, and workers were moved from the relative safety of their fortified settlements into the forests and the mountains, in order to make their way to the ports. The Harndonians had a field day - entire communities were murdered whilst on the march. None were spared; not women, not children, not the unarmed, and those that managed to avoid or escape the local tribespeople left Harndon forever, permanently scarred by what they had been exposed to.
In the early 1890s, Jaenis Isle faced revolution from a minority group supporting re-entry to the Empire. Courelli sent support for the rebels, but withdrew due to the perceived lack of economic motivation in retaking Jaenis Isle. Jaenisian refugees swarmed back to Courelli and were welcomed with open arms into both the culture and workforce. In 1895, a powerful earthquake struck Jaenis Isle and caused a tsunami that swept across portions of northern Courelli. In a single decade, the population of Jaenis Isle had declined from an estimated 50,000 to below 15,000, as result of emigration, disease, famine and disaster. This period is called the Great Jaenisian Misery.
The Twentieth Century
|The Twentieth Century|
|c. 1900 CE - c. 1980 CE|
|1909||Courelli invades and recaptures Wellsia; drove out by guerilla tactics from natives later the same year.|
|1921||Sparked by the unequal treatment of soldiers of color, the Racial Equality Act was passed.|
|1928||Workers' Party of Courelli attempts armed revolt, inspired by the Revolution in the North American Republics.|
|c. 1950s||Economic boom spurs rapid technological development.|
|1972 - 1978||Property bubble collapses, market crashes; depression ensues.|
The early 20th century was mostly peaceful for Courelli. It found itself in an economic upswing as a result of its shift to heavy manufacturing. Courelli was seen as a powerful and important neutral trading partner by nations around the world, concerning itself mostly with business and not for international politics. This engendered increased nationalism and a wave of increased imperialism, sometimes considered the "last death spasms of the Courellian Empire." Sparked by these sentiments, Governor Charles Springer pushed for what he called a "reconstruction of the traditional Courellian identity" through recapture of old territory. The first push was to reinvade and recapture Wellsia.
Initially massively successful, the Courellian invasion of Wellsia faced little resistance. The Wellsian forces were small and ill-prepared for the modern Courellian military force. The Wellsian militias lost cohesive organization rapidly and Courelli was able to capture large swaths of Wellsia, including the capital, and executed Wellsian leadership. Some of the Wellsian government managed to escape and rejoin with militia leaders to form an underground government loyal to the Wellsian constitution. This underground government began a guerrilla war against the occupying Courellian forces. More suited to the traditional combat of the 1800s, the Courellian army was not ready for these tactics and began to be pushed back. The underground Wellsian government recaptured many cities, but the largest shift in the war came at sea. The last remnants of the Wellsian navy following an early and decisive loss got a major windfall when they caught much of the Courellian navy at harbor. Blocking escape, the two ships unloaded upon the Courellian forces and sunk many ships, eventually leading to a cease-fire and surrender negotiations. The terms were generous to the Courellians, with the Wellsian knowing that Courelli still had the advantage if it came back to fire now that the Courellian navy was prepared. The Wellsians allowed them to pack up and leave. While combat continued on land for some time, the Courellian loss at the harbor swung the balance of power towards the Wellsians.
Embarrassed by the loss to "underequipped colonials," pressure was levied by the National Assembly, and Courellian forces were withdrawn. Governor Springer was removed from power due to the incident, with most of the blame levied against him. From the Wellsian perspective, the war encouraged their militaristic tendencies, creating the militarized state that is known today.
Sparked by the unequal treatment soldiers of color faced upon returning home from the invasion, the time following the war was one of discontent. Non-white soldiers had fought side-by-side with white soldiers, equal on the battlefield, but returned home to find their rights limited by a white aristocracy, with a disproportionate black population in indentured servitude, workhouses or debtor's prisons as a result. This discontent erupted in 1920, as race riots began throughout Leoncavallo. In 1921, the Racial Equality Act was passed, giving non-whites in Courelli the same rights as white citizens.
However, a powder keg had been lit. Hateful of the aristocracy, a growing group of dissenters were inspired by the Workers' Revolution in the North American Republics. In 1928, the Worker's Party of Courelli attempted an armed revolt, which lasted six months before ending in the dissolution of the party. This revolt was marked by extreme violence on both sides, to an extent not seen in more than a century on the Courellian mainland. It finally ended with the public executions of several WPA leaders on the steps of the Capitol. The remnants of the party began an intellectual, anti-aristocratic movement more in line with Courellian cultural tradition.
The general increase in personal wealth allowed for a never-before-seen luxury commodities market. Televisions became widely available and adopted. This began the expansion of the Courellian media industry, which had begun at the turn of the century with the early adoption and development of film studios. Courelli became a regional leader for television production, development and broadcast. Television news and journalism became a major facet of Courelli's culture and foreign policy strategy. Along with this came an increase of related media industries. Music, advertising and the already successful film market all rapidly increased in response to the increased interest in television through the 50s and 60s. The interest in manufacturing and industry, combined with this media interest and the accompanying growth in an early electronics market of the era flourished into Courellian futurism: the obsessive need for technological and artistic development into futuristic fields. Science fiction and speculative fiction became immensely popular genres, representing an optimistic view of the future and the possibilities of technology.
The seemingly limitless potential for growth of the Courelli economy came to a peak in the early 1970s. Property values had sky-rocketed and the value of Courelli products had grown massively and, arguably, unsustainably. In 1972, the bubble popped. After 30 years of expansive growth, the property bubble collapsed, causing sudden and appreciable losses across the Courellian economy. Market values of Courellian goods dropped, and with them opportunities for investment diminished. International shareholders and domestic investors began pulling their support of Courellian assets and currency values dropped. Unfortunately, the Courellian government was so committed to their sentiments of an absolutely free market that they refused to take proactive measures to limit the effects of recession. Instead, they assumed that the market would level out and naturally correct. However, decreased confidence in the market caused it to collapse further. Currency rates plummeted, and by 1974, the recession had settled into a depression. Poverty increased and many of the gains created over the last 40 years were lost. Infrastructure stagnated and many businesses closed their doors. The depression lasted three years while the government scrambled to adjust its economic policy to fix the problem. While the economy began to bounce back in 1978, the damage had already begun. Public trust in the government was at an all-time low, and the Fascist movement within the military had garnered a powerful foothold.
|c. 1980 CE - c. 1985 CE|
|1980||A military regiment under control of fascist General Justin Hatch turns on the government; by December of the same year, the conflict had escalated into a Civil War.|
|1981||Fascists capture the city of Falceri in the North, establish major defensive encampment; Fascists capture Courellian naval base in Picci; Most Courellian government operations moved to secluded and highly-fortified Monte Gabrieli due to threats on Leoncavallo.|
|1983||Fascists storm and capture Leoncavallo; 12 Courellian politicians beheaded on the steps of the Hall of the National Assembly; Last Courellian imperial holding in Gudao revolts.|
|1984||Fascists capture three nuclear missile sites on the southern coast; Fascists threaten to bomb Bassano and Monte Gabrieli; the government threatens to bomb Falceri and Picci.|
|1985||General Thatch found dead from drug overdose; Courellian Governor Augustus Pero found dead of stress-induced heart attack; James Fitzgerald installed as Governor.|
In the fall of 1980, a military regiment under the control of General Justin Thatch turned on the government, beginning a bloody military coup that would last five years. Beginning at Leoncavallo in the south, military forces rapidly divided along Loyalist and Fascist lines. The government attempted to reign in the military insurrection with heavy police action, but by December of 1980, the hostilities had erupted into full-blown civil war.
Fascist forces found their strongest foothold in the north, particularly in the area around the city of Falceri. Over the first few months of the war, they focused on digging into their defensive areas. The heaviest combat at that time occurred along the south-east coast, where Fascist holdings were weakest. It looked at this time like Loyalist forces would easily be able to push back the Fascists, and end the war before it started. This changed with the Fascist capture of a Courellian naval base at Picci. This gave the Fascists a foothold to push east along the coast, forcing back loyalist forces.
By late 1981, the Fascists had moved from the defensive to the offensive, and began pushing east. In the spring of 1983, they reached Leoncavallo. While most government action had been moved to Monte Gabrieli due to the threat of increased attacks, some politicians had remained or had been delayed. On May 19th, 1983, Fascist forces stormed the Capitol and managed to capture twelve politicians, who they beheaded on the steps of the Capitol. This would become one of the most infamous moments of the war, and would taint Courellian foreign relations for years. At the same time, the Courellian Empire officially came to an end. The burdens of the war and increased nationalism in Gudao forced Courelli to release the last of its holdings.
By this point, both sides had begun to slip into more and more desperate action. Human rights abuses and war crimes were commonplace, including abuse of civilians and POWs. Fascist momentum had slowed through the middle of 1982, and as the stalemate grew more entrenched, so too did the continued escalation of violence. The 101 East-West Highway between Leoncavallo and Monte Gabrieli became known as the Highway of Blood, with 90% of the war's most deadly conflict occurring within 20 miles on either side of the highway. Famous photos of soldiers from both sides being hung from the bridge are present in records from the time. Soldier suicides were commonplace on both sides of the conflict.
This stalemate continued for two years, until late 1984. At this point, Fascist forces mobilized a mass offensive and captured three nuclear missile silos on the southern coast. Fascist forces then threatened to bomb Bassano and Monte Gabrieli if Loyalist forces refused to surrender. The Loyalists, in turn, threatened nuclear retaliation on the Fascist-held populations of Picci and Falceri. Only the intervention of fate prevented nuclear catastrophe.
On January 12, 1985, General Thatch was found dead in his living quarters, along with his 2 mistresses. This news was closely followed by the death of Governor Augustus Pero due to stress-induced heart attack in Monte Gabrieli. With both sides leaderless, the coup entered a much more quiet stalemate, from which rose Augustus' cousin, James Fitzgerald. James oversaw a treaty between the two sides, and was installed as Governor on November 5th, 1985.
The Modern Age
|The Modern Age|
|c. 1985 CE - Present|
|1985 - 1990||Courelli undergoes complete nuclear disarmament.|
|2000||All-time high gun violence led to severe overhaul of gun ownership and storage laws.|
|2005||City-wide CCTV network established in Leoncavallo; leads to severe privacy concerns.|
|2015||Governor Michael Wallace dies; Speaker Jacob Hartley sworn in as Governor.|
|2016||Governor Hartley begins seizing extraconstitutional powers and consolidates the legislature and executive, leading to a Constitutional Crisis; Constitutional Convention called.|
|2017||New Constitution ratified; Joshua B. Thomas elected Governor.|
As a result of the coup, anti-nuclear and anti-military sentiment grew. The government, still reeling from the war, could not bring themselves to demilitarize completely, but saw the need to eliminate their nuclear stockpiles. Over the next five years, Courelli completely disarmed their nuclear program and began rebuilding their infrastructure, which had been severely delayed by the 1970s depression and damaged by the coup. The nation soon became extreme proponents of global nuclear disarmament.
It was clear to the leadership of the nation that massive overhauls would have to be done to the economic system if Courelli was to pull itself from the depths. Thankfully, Governor Fitzgerald was as effective an economist as he was a diplomat. Between 1985 and 1990, he began implementing policies that increased manufacturing and construction jobs, and began massively opening trade with foreign nations. While the Courellian economy initially took a hit due to decreased revenue from lowered tariffs, by 1990, the economy had begun righting itself and was increasingly rapidly.
Courelli was swift to grab onto the trends of the information era. The government pushed for massive expansion of the most modern technology, and huge projects were put in place to overhaul Leoncavallo from the ground-up. In a reflection of its time in after the coup, the Courellian economy exploded, rapidly increasing through the ‘90s and into the early 2000s to resemble its glory days.
The ‘90s and 2000s were a time of economic and foreign policy adjustment. Courellian neutrality became paramount to the people, who did not wish to see the nation thrown into any other wars. Governor Fitzgerald ruled on a platform of respect for sovereignty, refusing to become involved in matters not seen to directly involve Courelli or its foreign trade concerns.
In 2000, a wave of gun-based crimes in Leoncavallo led to severe overhaul of gun ownership laws. The crimes, which were mostly muggings-gone-wrong in various parks and public spaces of the Capitol, led to a six year debate on public safety measures and privacy concerns, which would lead to the creation of the Bastion Network in 2005. The Bastion Network was a city-wide CCTV network created and monitored by Bastion Technologies. The implementation of the system would see a marked decrease in crime throughout the city. However, stringent regulatory and bureaucratic laws meant that the system's effectiveness at actually preventing crime were severely limited.
In late 2015, civil unrest began as a result of the Courellian Succession Crisis of 2016. When Governor Michael Wallace died, there was no constitutional protocol for his replacement. The National Assembly declared that Speaker Jacob G. Hartley would be inaugurated, under much public scrutiny. This culminated in an extra-constitutional powergrab by the new Governor. Anti-government protesters rioted, leading to an explosive conflict in the Capitol as rebels became armed and attempted an uprising. The rebels were defeated, but the instability caused the overturn of the constitution as a result of rampant corruption. A quorum was established and a new Constitutional Convention opened, leading to the overhaul of the 300-year-old Courellian political system. A new Governor, Joshua B. Thomas, was elected, and under his rule, Courelli entered into a time more prosperous than ever before.
The Governor of the Republic of Courelli is the head of state and head of government of the Republic of Courelli.
The Governor directs the Executive Branch of the Government and is the Commander-in-Chief of the Courellian Armed Forces.
Powers and Duties
The Constitution sets the following qualifications for holding the Governorship:
- be a natural-born citizen of the Republic of Courelli;
- be a resident of the Republic of Courelli for at least 10 consecutive years immediately prior to assuming office;
A person who meets the above qualifications is still disqualified from holding the Office of Governor under any of the following conditions:
- No person can be elected Governor more than twice;
- Upon conviction in impeachment cases, the National Assembly has the option of disqualifying convicted individuals from holding federal office, including that of Governor.
The Governor is elected directly by the qualified citizens of the Republic of Courelli.
The Electoral Board of each Province meets at its Provincial capital -- about six weeks after the election -- to officially compile a report on the votes in their Province. They then send a copy of that report to the National Assembly. The reports are opened by the sitting Lieutenant Governor and read aloud before the National Assembly.
Upon certification of the results by the National Assembly, the results are considered firm and final.
The Lieutenant Governor of the Republic of Courelli is the second-highest officer of the Executive Branch of the Government, and is the highest-ranking official in the Gubernatorial line of succession.
Powers and Duties
The Lieutenant Governor has several primary duties:
- To cast a vote in the event of a National Assembly deadlock;
- To preside over and certify the official vote count of the Gubernatorial election;
There is a strong convention within the National Assembly that the Lieutenant Governor should not use their position to influence the passage of legislation in a partisan manner, except in the case of breaking tie votes.
The Constitution sets the following qualifications for holding the Lieutenant Governorship:
- be a citizen of the Republic of Courelli;
- be a resident of the Republic of Courelli for at least 10 consecutive years immediately prior to assuming office;
- be at least thirty years old;
A person who meets the above qualifications is still disqualified from holding the Office of Lieutenant Governor under any of the following conditions:
- No person can be elected Lieutenant Governor more than twice;
- Upon conviction in impeachment cases, the National Assembly has the option of disqualifying convicted individuals from holding federal office, including that of Lieutenant Governor.
The Lieutenant Governor is elected directly by the qualified citizens of the Republic of Courelli.
The Electoral Board of each Province meets at its Provincial capital -- about six weeks after the election -- to officially compile a report on the votes in their Province. They then send a copy of that report to the National Assembly. The reports are opened by the sitting Lieutenant Governor and read aloud before the National Assembly.
Upon certification of the results by the National Assembly, the results are considered firm and final.
|The Department of Agriculture|
The Department of Agriculture, also known as the Agriculture Department, is the executive department responsible for developing and executing laws related to farming, agriculture, forestry, and food.
It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the Republic of Courelli and internationally.
The Executive Branch has constitutional responsibilities for regulating and overseeing the nation's food production and nutrition system. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of Agriculture is the lead food production and nutrition agency, and its head, the Secretary of Agriculture, is the Governor's principal food production and nutrition advisor. The Department advances Courellian objectives and interests domestically through its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's food production and nutrition policy.
As stated by the Department of Agriculture, its purpose includes:
The Department of Agriculture conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses both the Civil Service for its positions. Duties of employees include:
In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of Agriculture works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of the Interior and Department of Health. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about food production and nutrition policy initiatives and policies.
|The Department of Commerce and Labor|
The Department of Commerce and Labor is the executive department concerned with promoting economic growth, monitoring occupational safety, establishing wage and hour standards, managing unemployment insurance benefits, overseeing reemployment services, and collecting economic statistics.
The mission of the department is to "promote job creation and improved living standards for all Courellians by creating an infrastructure that promotes economic growth, technological competitiveness, and sustainable development."
The Executive Branch has constitutional responsibilities for regulating domestic trade and labor regulations. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of Commerce and Labor is the lead trade and labor agency, and its head, the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, is the Governor's principal economic advisor. The Department advances Courellian objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's economic policy. It also provides an array of important services to Courellian citizens seeking employment or related benefits.
As stated by the Department of Commerce and Labor, its purpose includes:
The Department of Commerce and Labor conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses the Civil Service system for its positions. Duties of employees include:
In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of Commerce and Labor works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of State and the Department of the Treasury. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about economic policy initiatives and policies.
|The Department of Defense|
The Department of Defense is an executive department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the Courellian Armed Forces.
The Executive Branch has constitutional responsibilities for providing for the defense of Courelli and its citizens. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of Defense is the lead defense agency, and its head, the Secretary of Defense, is the Governor's principal defense advisor. The Department provides for the protection of Courelli, its citizens, and its objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's defense policy.
As stated by the Department of Defense, its purpose includes:
The Department of Defense conducts these activities with a joint military and civilian workforce, and normally uses both the Selective Service and Civil Service system for its positions. Duties of employees include:
In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of Defense works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of State and the Department of Justice. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about defense policy initiatives and policies.
|The Department of Education|
The Department of Education, also referred to as the Education Department, is an executive department whose primary functions are to "establish policy for, administer and coordinate most federal assistance to education, collect data on US schools, and to enforce federal educational laws regarding privacy and civil rights."
The Executive Branch has constitutional responsibilities for regulating and overseeing the nation's education system. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of Education is the lead education agency, and its head, the Secretary of Education, is the Governor's principal education advisor. The Department advances Courellian objectives and interests in the classroom through its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's education policy. It also provides an array of important services to Courellian citizens seeking education.
As stated by the Department of Education, its purpose includes:
The Department of Education conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses the private sector for its positions. Duties of employees include:
In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of Education works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture and the Department of the Interior. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about education policy initiatives and policies.
|The Department of Health|
The Department of Health, also known as the Health Department, is an executive department with the goal of protecting the health of all Courellians and providing essential human services. Its motto is "Improving the health, safety, and well-being of Courelli".
The Executive Branch has constitutional responsibilities for providing for the general health and wellness of its citizens. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of Health is the lead health agency, and its head, the Secretary of Health, is the Governor's principal health advisor. The Department advances Courellian objectives and interests in the clinic and in daily life through its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's health policy. It also provides an array of important services to Courellian citizens seeking healthcare or related information.
As stated by the Department of Health, its purpose includes:
The Department of Health conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses both the Civil Service and private sector for its positions. Duties of employees include:
In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of Health works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture and the Department of the Interior. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about health policy initiatives and policies.
|The Department of the Interior|
The Department of the Interior is the executive department responsible for domestic affairs, including the management and conservation of most public lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to territorial affairs of the Republic of Courelli.
About 75% of public land is managed by the department, with most of the remainder managed by the Department of Agriculture.
The Executive Branch has constitutional responsibilities for regulating and overseeing the nation's domestic affairs. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of the Interior is the lead domestic agency, and its head, the Secretary of the Interior, is the Governor's principal domestic advisor. The Department advances Courellian objectives and interests domestically its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's domestic policy. It also provides an array of important services to Courellian citizens in their daily lives.
As stated by the Department of the Interior, its purpose includes:
The Department of the Interior conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses both the Civil Service and the private sector for its positions. Duties of employees include:
In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of the Interior works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about domestic policy initiatives and policies.
|The Department of Justice|
The Department of Justice, also known as the Justice Department, is an executive department responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the Republic of Courelli.
The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the National Investigation and Intelligence Agency. The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the Courellian Government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the national corrections system.
The Executive Branch has constitutional responsibilities for regulating and overseeing the nation's intelligence and justice system. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of Justice is the lead intelligence and justice agency, and its head, the Attorney General, is the Governor's principal intelligence and justice advisor. The Department advances Courellian objectives and interests domestically through its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's intelligence and justice policy.
As stated by the Department of Justice, its purpose includes:
The Department of Justice conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses both the Civil Service for its positions. Duties of employees include:
In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of Justice works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of State. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about intelligence and justice policy initiatives and policies.
|The Department of State|
The Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Courellian executive department that advises the Governor and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
Equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries, the State Department is responsible for the international relations of the Republic of Courelli, negotiates treaties and agreements with foreign entities, and represents the Republic of Courelli in the World Assembly.
The Executive Branch and the National Assembly have constitutional responsibilities for Courellian foreign policy. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of State is the lead Courellian foreign affairs agency, and its head, the Secretary of State, is the Governor's principal foreign policy advisor. The Department advances Courellian objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's foreign policy. It also provides an array of important services to Courellian citizens and to foreigners seeking to visit or immigrate to the Republic of Courelli.
As stated by the Department of State, its purpose includes:
The Department of State conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses the Foreign Service personnel system for positions that require service abroad. Employees may be assigned to diplomatic missions abroad to:
In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of State works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of Defense, the Department of the Treasury, and the Department of Commerce and Labor. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about foreign policy initiatives and policies.
|The Department of Transportation|
The Department of Transportation is an executive department concerned with transportation.
Its mission is to "Serve the Republic of Courelli by ensuring a fast, safe, efficient, accessible, and convenient transportation system that meets our vital national interests and enhances the quality of life of the Courellian people, today and into the future."
The Executive Branch has constitutional responsibilities for regulating and overseeing the nation's transportation system. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of Transportation is the lead transportation agency, and its head, the Secretary of Transportation, is the Governor's principal transportation advisor. The Department advances Courellian objectives and interests domestically through its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's transportation policy. It also provides an array of important services to Courellian citizens through the maintenance of infrastructure.
As stated by the Department of Transportation, its purpose includes:
The Department of Transportation conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses both the Civil Service and the private sector for its positions. Duties of employees include:
In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of Transportation works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of the Interior. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about transportation policy initiatives and policies.
|The Department of the Treasury|
The Department of the Treasury is an executive department whose responsibilities include producing currency and coinage, collecting taxes and paying bills of the Government, managing the national finances, supervising banks and thrifts, and advising on fiscal policy.
The Treasury prints and mints all paper currency and coins in circulation through the National Mint and Reserve. The Department also collects all federal taxes through the National Revenue Service, and manages Government debt.
The Executive Branch has constitutional responsibilities for regulating and overseeing the nation's financial system. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of the Treasury is the lead financial agency, and its head, the Secretary of the Treasury, is the Governor's principal financial advisor. The Department advances Courellian objectives and interests in the domestic and global economy through its primary role in developing and implementing the Governor's financial policy.
As stated by the Department of the Treasury, its purpose includes:
The Department of the Treasury conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses both the Civil Service and the private sector for its positions. Duties of employees include:
In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of the Treasury works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of Commerce and Labor and the Department of the Interior. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with the National Assembly about financial policy initiatives and policies.
The National Assembly
|The National Assembly|
|File:Courelli National Assembly Seal.png|
|Speaker of the Assembly|
|Legislative Branch of the Courellian Government|
|Term Length|| At the pleasure of the National Assembly|
|Office||The Hall of the National Assembly|
|Seat||Leoncavallo, EN, Courelli|
The National Assembly is the legislature of Courelli.
The National Assembly is composed of 465 Members, each of whom are elected by and represent a single District. There are currently 155 Districts in the National Assembly, and each District is represented by 3 Members.
Bills on any subject may be introduced in the National Assembly, subject to the rules and procedure of the Assembly itself, acting as a deliberative body.
|Party||Political Position||Leader||National Assembly|
|Social Democratic||Left||Timothy Woods||163|
|Jaenis National||Special Interest||Jacob Hughes||19|
Powers and Duties
The Constitution provides several unique functions for the National Assembly that form its ability to "check and balance" the powers of other elements of the Government.
The Governor can make certain appointments only with the advice and consent of the Assembly. Officials whose appointments require the Assembly's approval include members of the Cabinet, heads of most federal executive agencies, ambassadors, Justices of the Supreme Court, and other federal judges. Typically, a nominee is first subject to a hearing before a Assembly Committee. Thereafter, the nomination is considered by the full Assembly. The majority of nominees are confirmed, but in a small number of cases each year, Assembly Committees purposely fail to act on a nomination to block it. In addition, the Governor sometimes withdraws nominations when they appear unlikely to be confirmed. Because of this, outright rejections of nominees on the Assembly floor are infrequent.
The National Assembly also has a role in ratifying treaties. The Constitution provides that the Governor may only "make Treaties, provided two thirds of the National Assembly concur." However, not all international agreements are considered treaties under Courellian law, even if they are considered treaties under international law. The National Assembly has passed laws authorizing the Governor to conclude executive agreements without action by the Assembly. However, executive agreements are not mentioned in the Constitution, leading some scholars to suggest that they unconstitutionally circumvent the treaty-ratification process. However, courts have upheld the validity of such agreements.
The Constitution empowers the National Assembly to impeach federal officials for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors." If the sitting Governor of the Republic of Courelli is being tried, the Chief Justice of the Republic of Courelli presides over the trial. During an impeachment trial, Members of the Assembly are constitutionally required to sit on oath or affirmation. Conviction requires a two-thirds majority of the Members present. A convicted official is automatically removed from office; in addition, the Assembly may stipulate that the defendant be banned from holding office. No further punishment is permitted during the impeachment proceedings; however, the party may face criminal penalties in a normal court of law.
The National Assembly has the power to elect the Governor or Lieutenant Governor if no candidate receives a majority of votes in the general election, but must choose from the two candidates with the highest numbers of votes.
The Constitution authorizes the National Assembly to elect a Speaker of the National Assembly, who presides over the National Assembly. The Speaker is, by custom, the Member of the Majority Party with the longest record of continuous service.
The Speaker (or designee) sits in a chair in the front of the Assembly Chamber. The presiding officer calls on Members to speak (by the rules of the Assembly, the first Member who rises is recognized); rules on points of order (objections by Members that a rule has been breached, subject to appeal to the whole chamber); and announces the results of votes.
The National Assembly uses Standing Rules for operation. The Speaker (or designee) enforces the rules of the National Assembly, and may warn members who deviate from them. The The Speaker (or designee) sometimes uses a gavel to maintain order.
Sessions of the Assembly are generally open to the public and are broadcast live on television.
The Constitution provides that a majority of the Assembly constitutes a quorum to do business. Under the rules and customs of the Assembly, a quorum is always assumed present unless a quorum call explicitly demonstrates otherwise.
Debate, like most other matters governing the internal functioning of the National Assembly, is governed by internal rules adopted by the Assembly.
During debate, Members may only speak if called upon by the Speaker (or designee), but the Speaker (or designee) is required to recognize the first Member who rises to speak. Thus, the Speaker (or designee) has little control over the course of debate. Customarily, however, the Majority Leader and Minority Leader are accorded priority during debates even if another Member rises first. All speeches must be addressed to the Speaker (or designee), who is addressed as "Mr. Speaker" or "Madam Speaker", and not to another Member; other Members must be referred to in the third person. In most cases, Members do not refer to each other by name, but by Province or position, using forms such as "the Member from Monteverdi", "the gentleman from Falceri", or "my distinguished friend the Chairman of the Judiciary Committee". Members address the Assembly standing next to their desk.
Apart from rules governing civility, there are few restrictions on the content of speeches; there is no requirement that speeches pertain to the matter before the Assembly.
The rules of the Assembly provide that no Member may make more than two speeches on a motion or bill on the same day. The length of these speeches is not limited by the rules; thus, in most cases, Members may speak for as long as they please. In other cases (for example, for the budget process), limits are imposed by statute. However, the right to unlimited debate is generally preserved.
When debate concludes, the motion in question is put to a vote. The Speaker (or designee) puts the question, and Members respond either "Yea/Aye" (in favor of the motion) or "Nay" (against the motion). When a recorded vote is held, the Speaker (or designee) calls the roll of the Assembly in alphabetical order; Members respond when their name is called. The Speaker (or designee) then announces the result of the vote. A majority of those voting determines whether the motion carries. If the vote is tied, the Lieutenant Governor is entitled to cast a tie-breaking vote.
On occasion, the National Assembly may go into what is called a secret or closed session. During a closed session, the chamber doors are closed, cameras are turned off, and the galleries are completely cleared of anyone not essential to the session. Closed sessions are rare and usually held only when the Assembly is discussing sensitive subject matter such as information critical to national security, private communications from the Governor, or deliberations during impeachment trials. If the Assembly does not approve release of a secret transcript, the transcript is sent to the National Archives. The proceedings remain sealed indefinitely until the Assembly votes to remove the injunction of secrecy.
The National Assembly maintains an Assembly Calendar and an Executive Calendar. The former identifies bills and resolutions awaiting Assembly floor actions. The latter identifies executive resolutions, treaties, and nominations reported out by committee(s) and awaiting Assembly floor action. Both are updated each day the Assembly is in session.
The National Assembly uses Committees (and their subcommittees) for a variety of purposes, including the review of bills and the oversight of the executive branch. Formally, the whole Assembly appoints Committee Members.
Most Committee work is performed by 16 Standing Committees, each of which has jurisdiction over a field, such as finance or foreign relations. Each standing committee may consider, amend, and report bills that fall under its jurisdiction. Furthermore, each standing committee considers Executive nominations to offices related to its jurisdiction. For instance, the Judiciary Committee considers nominees for judgeships, and the Foreign Relations Committee considers nominees for positions in the Department of State. Committees may block nominees and impede bills from reaching the floor of the Assembly. Standing committees also oversee the departments and agencies of the executive branch. In discharging their duties, standing committees have the power to hold hearings and to subpoena witnesses and evidence.
The Assembly also has several committees that are not considered standing committees. Such bodies are generally known as select or special committees; examples include the Select Committee on Ethics and the Special Committee on Aging. Legislation is referred to some of these committees, although the bulk of legislative work is performed by the standing committees.
Article ? of the Constitution establishes the Supreme Court of the Republic of Courelli and authorizes the National Assembly to establish inferior courts as their need shall arise. All judges are appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the National Assembly, and serve a lifetime term - although a judge who commits an offense while in office may be impeached in the same way as any other officials of the government.
The Supreme Court adjudicates matters pertaining to the Government, disputes between Provinces, and interpretation of the Constitution, and may declare legislation or executive action made at any level of the government as unconstitutional. There have been instances in the past where such declarations have been ignored by the other two branches. The Supreme Court's power extends to cases arising under the Constitution, an Act of the National Assembly; a treaty; cases affecting ambassadors, ministers and consuls of foreign countries; cases and controversies to which the Government is a party; controversies between Provinces (or their citizens) and foreign nations (or their citizens). The Supreme Court is also tasked with hearing appeals from the decisions of Provincial Courts.
Below the Supreme Court are the five Provincial Courts, established by the National Assembly in 1723, which are the general trial courts for law, and for certain controversies between Provinces. The Provincial Courts' power extends both to civil actions for damages and other redress, and to criminal cases arising under law.
Other courts, such as the bankruptcy and tax courts, are specialized courts handling only certain kinds of cases.
|Courellian Mission to the Social Liberal Union|
The Courellian Mission to the Social Liberal Union is the formal title of the Courellian delegation to the Social Liberal Union (SLU), and is the primary channel for communications between the Courellian government and the Social Liberal Union. Each nation in the SLU has a similar delegation. The Courellian Mission joined the SLU on April 17, 2017, and has been an active voice in the group ever since.
The Mission advances Courellian objectives and interests in the world through diplomacy, negotiation, and daily monitoring of SLU activities. The Mission covers a wide range of the government's objectives, from the peaceful settlements of disputes to protecting the environment; from respect for human rights to promoting sustainable development. The Courellian Mission to the Social Liberal Union is the vital link between the Courellian government and the Union. Its principal roles are to promote Courellian interests in the SLU, and to keep government ministers and departments informed about SLU discussions.
The Social Liberal Union is an indispensable organization for a globalizing world. Through treaties, dialogue, negotiation, relationships, and the capacity to implement decisions, the SLU helps to preserve our sovereignty, protect our key interests and defend our values. It also helps us to develop the mutual understanding we need to resolve our differences - to forge compromises and agreements, and to combine our energies for the common good.
The Courellian Permanent Representative to the Social Liberal Union (commonly called the Courellian Ambassador to the SLU) is the official representative of the Republic of Courelli to the Social Liberal Union.
The Representative, currently Randall Reid, is charged with representing Courelli in the SLU Open Parliament, except in the rare situation in which a more senior officer (such as the Secretary of State or the Governor) is present. The Representative has the rank of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary and is appointed by the Governor (in consultation with the Secretary of State) and confirmed by the National Assembly.
|Courellian Mission to the World Assembly|
The Courellian Mission to the World Assembly is the formal title of the Courellian delegation to the World Assembly (WA), and is the primary channel for communications between the Courellian government and the World Assmebly. Each nation in the WA has a similar delegation. The Courellian Mission joined the World Assembly on April 17, 2017.
The Mission advances Courellian objectives and interests in the world through diplomacy, negotiation, and daily monitoring of WA activities. The Mission covers a wide range of the government's objectives, from the peaceful settlements of disputes to protecting the environment; from respect for human rights to promoting sustainable development. The Courellian Mission to the World Assembly is the vital link between the Courellian government and the World Assembly. Its principal roles are to promote Courellian interests in the World Assembly, and to keep government ministers and departments informed about WA discussions.
The World Assembly is an indispensable organization for a globalizing world. Through treaties, dialogue, negotiation, relationships, and the capacity to implement decisions, the WA helps to preserve our sovereignty, protect our key interests and defend our values. It also helps us to develop the mutual understanding we need to resolve our differences - to forge compromises and agreements, and to combine our energies for the common good.
The Courellian Permanent Representative to the World Assembly (commonly called the Courellian Ambassador to the WA) is the official representative of the Republic of Courelli to the World Assembly.
The Representative, currently Morgan O'Gallagher, is charged with representing Courelli in the WA General Assembly and Security Council, except in the rare situation in which a more senior officer (such as the Secretary of State or the Governor) is present. The Representative has the rank of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary and is appointed by the Governor (in consultation with the Secretary of State) and confirmed by the National Assembly.
Dalinism is a monotheistic (sometimes pantheistic) religion based upon the teachings of the Great Prophet Dalin. It is centered on the belief of a single divine entity, called God or the One God, that created the world and oversees the operation of the universe through human Intercessors.
The religion arose in the late Iron Age. As written sources do not exist before the Atlian Kingdom, an exact date is impossible to ascertain, but it is certain that the religion was practiced in several parts of Atlia during the conquest of King Jaspus, and was later adopted by Jaspus' son, Bengar, as the religion of the Atlian Kingdom. Today, Dalinism is the largest religion in Courelli.
The basic tenets and beliefs of Dalinism are expressed through a series of Creeds, which express belief in the One God, in his servants on Earth and in Heaven, who have lived, served and died in intercession for the sins of mankind. Belief, service, and dedication to the teachings of the Intercessors is said to allow for the remission of sin. The teachings of Dalin and the revelations given to him by God are expressed in the Dalinian Scrolls, although there have been many other Addendatory texts since Dalin's death.
The Holy Scripture held most central to the Dalinian faith is the Dalinian Scrolls, accredited to the oral tradition started by Dalin and eventually laid to paper by Ferdian of Gwyll. There are many versions and translations of the book. All versions contain the same core 30 Books of the Saints. The Books of the Saints chosen to be contained in the Dalinian Scrolls have been the center of many doctrinal schisms, since only the stories accredited to Dalin himself can be contained in the Scrolls. The second half of the book contains the Prophecies, a collection of six books said to be the prophetic visions given to Dalin describing future events. Some scholars accredit these prophecies to later writers, who used the Dalinian Scrolls for political leverage in their own time. In addition, most translations also contain the Letters of Hart Isle, a collection of 22 letters, which further explain the doctrine of the faith and the basis of Dalinian practices.
There are many other books which are used to supplement the Scrolls, the collection of which is called the Addendatory. The most important are the Biographies, the collection of life stories of later saints and intercessors. The highest of the Biographies are the Holy Journals, the diary texts of actual saints. Second to these are accounts of the lives of the saints given by their immediate followers. The lowest of the Biographies are those written later, by those who didn't know the saints directly.
There are also the Books of Practice, which describe the rituals and rites to be performed in church service. Some Dalinians do not prescribe to the Practices, seeing them as earthly and not divinely inspired.
Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as Creeds (from Latin credo, meaning "I believe"). Some Dalinians reject definitive creeds as an admission of faith, and have referred to this use of creeds as "contractual faith", focused on outward expression as opposed to inward acceptance.
|The Four Corners|
Dalinians believe that the one and only purpose of life is to give glory to and worship God through faithful service. To this end, they frequently follow the Four Corners - central practices believed to hold up the rest of the faith. They are:
These actions represent the four virtues of Dalinism:
Salvation from sin is an important aspect of the Dalinian faith. It is through hard work, moral living and service to god in life that one is saved. It is believed that by emulating the lives of the intercessors and holding their messages close to heart, one can achieve salvation from sin and be brought to heaven through grace. Salvation in the Dalinian faith is earned, not given.
Intercessors are divinely-inspired Prophets who act as mediators between God and man. They act as Messengers of God on Earth, and are prayed to in Heaven as divine emissaries, and take special precedent in the afterlife. The process of becoming an Intercessor is referred to as Apotheosis.
In every tradition, Dalin is considered the highest and foremost among the Intercessors in Heaven. He is said to have been given the Book of Life and Death upon his Apotheosis, and acts as God's divine emissary and messenger to all Intercessors since.
|The Nature of God|
There are several intrinsic disagreements in the Dalinian faith about the nature of God. The most widely spread belief is that God is a single entity who has a vested and direct interest in the material plane of existence, and who interacts with it through fate, blessings, divine inspiration, miracles, and other divinely appointed events. In this school of thought, intercessors are primarily teachers and miracle workers, simply acting as intermediaries for the miracles provided by God's power. All divine purpose and guidance is vested in God and in no others. These traditions often believe strongly in the power of prayer, prophecy and fate.
A second school of thought believes in a more distant God, who created the universe but who only has interaction with it through the intercessors. In this tradition, the imperfection of the universe means that God cannot exist within it, and therefore he does not interact on a day-to-day basis with it. God's only hand in the universe is through the intercessors. Intercessors still have their power granted by God, but the power of prayer is negligible or non-existent in this tradition.
A third tradition believes that God does not directly interact with the material plane at all, and that the powers of the intercessors are wholly their own as divine entities. Belief in this concept is often branded as heretical or near-heretical, since followers of this belief often worship the intercessors as opposed to directly worshiping God. Supporters of this school of thought will claim that worship of the intercessors is actually indirect worship of the one God, since many believers in this faith have a semi-pantheistic belief that their pantheon of intercessors are all incarnations of the one God himself, carrying a spark or element of his divine fire inside them.
Dalinians believe that a Messiah will eventually arrive on Earth, an event that will occur at the end of time after a period of severe disaster and trial. While the term messiah has been borrowed from Abrahamic religions, the term "anointed one" isn't exactly accurate, since there is no claim of "anointing" in the Prophecies related to the Dalinian messianic tradition. Many Dalinians adhere to the belief that there is a person born each generation with the potential to become Messiah, if the Dalinian faith warrants his coming; this candidate is known as the Chosen of the Time.
Generally, it is believed that the Messiah will create a Great Kingdom of the Dalinian faith, unite believers across the world, usher in peace and freedom from want, and, eventually, unify the world. Signs of his coming will include healings and curing of disease, an expansion of Dalinism across the globe, and the end of death. The Messiah will be both a Great Warrior and a Great Teacher. Following his time of rule, the Messiah will lead the Intercessors together with Dalin back into the material world. The Intercessors will reap the living sinners, and believers will be taken into heaven to become the Final Generation, the last of the intercessors. The focus on this belief and its literalism varies from denomination to denomination.
Most Dalinians believe that human beings experience divine judgment and are rewarded either with eternal life or eternal damnation. This includes a judgment particular to the individual soul upon physical death. Purification of the soul is earned through hard work, although some sects believe in a cleansing period after death in which a believer's soul can be purified after death through a period of work in the afterlife, similar to the Christian belief of purgatory.
I believe in the one God,
|Creed of St. George|
I believe in the mercy of God,
I believe in the coming of the chosen of God,
Avus Gustavson described 1st-century Dalinian liturgy in his letter to King Villim, and his description remains relevant to the basic structure of Dalinian liturgical worship:
- "Ond an þe day hight saturday, al who live in cities or in þe country gaþer togeþer to that oone place, ond þe lives off þe saints art recounted, or þe prophecies spoken, als long als time permits; þen, when þe reader has ceased, he exhorts to þe imitation off þese good þings. Þen we al rise togeþer ond pray, ond, als we er seyde, when our prayer sy ended, bread ond ale ond water art brought, ond þe reader in as manere offers prayers ond þanksgivings, accord'ng to his ability, ond þe people assent; ond þere sy āc distribution to ech, ond āc participation off þat over which þanks hath been given, ond to þose who art absent āc portion sy sent by þe deacons. Ond þey who art well to dōn, ond willing, give hwæt ech þinks fit; ond hwæt sy collect'd sy deposit'd wiþ þe priest, who succors þe orphans ond widows ond þose who, þrough sickness or hwelc oþer cause, art in want, ond þose who art in bonds ond þe strangers sojourn'ng amonge us, ond in āc word takes rekke off al who art in ne'd."
Thus, as Gustavson described, Dalinians assemble for communal worship on Saturday, though other liturgical practices often occur outside this setting. Scripture readings are drawn from the Dalinian Scrolls or the Biographies. Instruction is given based on these readings, called a sermon. There are a variety of congregational prayers, including thanksgiving and intercession, which occur throughout the service and take a variety of forms including recited, responsive, silent, or sung. Creeds are regularly spoken or sung.
Some groups depart from this traditional liturgical structure. A division is often made between "High" church services, characterized by greater solemnity and ritual, and "Low" services, but even within these two categories there is great diversity in forms of worship.
Some services resemble concerts with rock and pop music, dancing, and use of multimedia. For groups which do not recognize priesthood distinct from ordinary believers, the services are generally led by a minister, preacher, or pastor. Still others may lack any formal leaders, either in principle or by local necessity. Some churches use only a cappella music, either on principle or by tradition.
Worship can be varied for special events like baptisms or weddings in the service or significant feast days. In many churches today, adults and children will separate for all or some of the service to receive age-appropriate teaching.
Ancient Atlian Mythology
Atlian mythology is the body of mythology of the Ancient Atlian people stemming from pre-Dalinian paganism, and continuing after the Dalinization of the culture and into the Courellian folklore of the modern period; these include myths in Atlian and other languages, as transmitted by Ancient Atlian people as well as other ancient ethnic groups, such of early Jaenisians. Atlian mythology consists of tales of various deities, beings, and heroes derived from numerous sources from both before and after the pagan period, including medieval manuscripts, archaeological representations, and folk tradition. Atlian mythology is primarily attested in dialects of Ancient Atlian, both spoken before and during the First Kingdom. As in many cultures' mythologies, Atlian mythology has in the past been believed to be, at least in part, a factual recording of history. Thus, in the study of historical Atlian culture, many of the stories that have been told regarding characters and events which have been written or told of the distant past have a double tradition: one which presents a more historicized and one which presents a more mythological version.
Most of the surviving mythology centers on the plights of the Gods, their home Heilagrvegr (ˈhe͜ilawɣɾ̥vɛgɾ̥), and their interaction with various other beings, such as Humans in Menskrvegr (ˈmɛnskɾ̥vɛgɾ̥) , the Hynaldin (ˈçinal̥dɪn) in Dyrvegr (ˈdyɾvɛgɾ̥), and friends, lovers, or foes of the Gods. The cosmos in Atlian mythology consists of a dichotomy of order and chaos, with a swirling Void that flanks Atyr's forge, Aldrnari, which provides light to the Realms and protects them from the Myrkr (ˈmjiɾ̥kɾ̥), or Darkness.
Heilagrvegr (ˈhe͜ilawɣɾ̥vɛgɾ̥), literally "Sacred Realm," is one of the Five Realms. Constructed by Atyr in the earliest days, and centered upon his forge, Aldrnari, Heilagrvegr is the home of the Gods. It is an indestructible fortress from which the Gods keep Myrkr at bay and rule the Five Realms.
Sæmdvegr (ˈse͜imtvɛgɾ̥), literally "Honor Realm," is one of the Five Realms. This eternal paradise, designed to house the immortal souls of humans, is ruled by Omeyar, and is often visited by Ast Ydarr, who guides the souls of mankind from Menskrvegr to Sæmdvegr.
Menskrvegr (ˈmɛnskɾ̥vɛgɾ̥), literally "Man Realm," is one of the Five Realms. This Realm, inhabited by humans, is often visited by the Gods, who seem to enjoy meddling in the daily affairs of mankind.
Dyrvegr (ˈdyɾvɛgɾ̥), literally "Beast Realm," is one of the Five Realms. Designed by Atyr to be a prison for the Hynaldin and other abominations, this Realm is ruled and guarded by Hynaldir. The creatures imprisoned here seek to destroy Heilagrvegr and enslave humanity, and it is prophesied that they will be set loose on the Realms before the End of Days.
Feigrvegr (ˈfe͜iɣɾ̥vɛgɾ̥), literally "Dead Realm," is one of the Five Realms. It is all that remains of the Ellrikæsir, or the Old Gods. It is the oldest Realm, predating Atyr and Aldrnari. It and its inhabitants were ravaged by an unknown force named Doom, which birthed Myrkr. Travel to Feigrvegr is severely restricted, due to its dangerous nature.
|The foremost God among the followers of Atlian traditions was Atyr (ˈaːtyɾ̥), who is portrayed as a relentless bulwark between Humanity and the Darkness, called Myrkr (ˈmjiɾ̥kɾ̥), that would consume them. Atyr was described as stunningly beautiful, so much so that he was said to glow with light, and his hair said to be made of molten gold.
He is the Creator of All Things, the King of Heilagrvegr (ˈhe͜ilawɣɾ̥ˌvɛgɾ̥), the Protector of Menskrvegr (ˈmɛnskɾ̥ˌvɛgɾ̥) and the God of Crafting and Metalwork. He forged the weapons of the Gods in his mighty forge, Aldrnari, on the edge of the Void. His forgehammer, Njrnal (ˈnɪjɾnɑl̥), had the power to shape the very earth in a single swing, and was once stolen by Ast Ydarr, who accidentally split the Isles apart by its misuse.
|Ast Ydarr (ˈawstʰ jidar̥) is frequently mentioned as a popular God. He is the God of Trickery and Death, and serves as the as Leader of the Basuu. He is responsible for overseeing a soul's journey between Life and Death, bridging various realms of existence, although this role is frequently left to his servants.
He is an adventurer and is described as the most cunning of the Gods, although he is undisciplined and mercurial. Armed with his trusty Fa'Kael, a silver coin that always lands heads-up, Ast Ydarr often challenges both Gods and Men alike to competitions of wit and probability.
Eikkjon (ˈɛkʲɔ͜ʊn) is the Omnipercipient Chronicler of the Gods, the Writer of all True Histories, and the God of Silence, Pacifism, Laws, and Justice. Eikkjon writes the deeds of all men and Gods in the Scrolls of Life, and acts as Witness in all disputes.
He rarely appears in stories, save for when he is called as a witness in some Godly dispute, since he doesn't take action of his own accord, but he is rightfully feared by the other Gods, since he knows all of their secrets and indiscretions.
|Hynaldir (ˈhynɑl̥dɪɾ̥ɹ) is an anomaly among the Atlian Gods. He is the Gatekeeper of Dyrvegr (ˈdyɾvɛgɾ̥) and the God of Strength, War, and Victory. He is one of the staunchest allies of Atyr, and is a friend to all Gods, but his children, the Hynaldin (ˈçinal̥dɪn), - vicious monsters and wild giants who reside in Dyrvegr - oppose the Gods at every turn and seek the ruin of mankind.
He is one of the oldest Gods in the myths, created by Atyr in the Earliest Days, and bears the power of absolute invincibility: no blow, no matter how great, can bring down Hynaldir, and all threats of the world turn away from him. This leaves Hynaldir the happiest of all the Gods, since he is completely unaware of misery or pain. However, when he is roused to anger he is said to become the storm clouds themselves, his beard rippling with lightning and his hair filled with rain.
|Erjos (ˈæɾjɔ͜ʊs) is the God of Bards, Poetry, Music, Brewing, and Revelry, and is the best-spoken of the Gods. Ereus is known for his great ego, and for his witty insults getting him into frequent trouble.|
|Ynnir (ˈjitniɾ̥) is the God of the Sea, and lives in the depths of the endless oceans beyond the Isles. Ynnir is depicted as blind, solemn and wise, his mind as vast as all of the oceans. Despite his blindness, he is said to know all things that happen on or along his domain.
He also controls the weather, directing the winds and captaining the mighty flying ship Vangast (ˈvawngast), whose wake forms the clouds. He is sometimes said to be Hynaldir’s brother and rival, especially in tales of their arguments over the wind spirit Rhja (ˈɾ̥iːja).
|Omeyar (ˈɔ͜ʊmejɑɾ̥) is also frequently mentioned in surviving texts, often as a foil to more headstrong Gods or as the fixer of problems caused by other Gods' meddling. One-eyed, horse-riding and raven-flanked, clad in a cloak of night and stars and wielding the Moon Shield and impossibly sharp knife Fungr (ˈfynkɾ̥), Omeyar pursues knowledge throughout the worlds.
In an act of self-sacrifice, Omeyar is described as burning himself each dawn to summon the sun, to be reborn each dusk. He created the alphabet and mastered the names of all things, creating language and magic, which he passed on to humanity, and is the God of Wisdom, Knowledge, Language, and Innovation. Omeyar has a strong association with death, particularly self-sacrifice, and is the ruler of the eternal paradise Sæmdvegr (ˈse͜imtvɛgɾ̥).
|Lyyja (ˈlyjːa) is alternatively depicted as Omeyar’s sister or as his wife, depending on the source. Modern retellings usually lean towards the pair being married, due to Courellian cultural mores regarding the sexual nature of a few of their shared myths. Lyyja is a Goddess of Hunters, Beasts, and Travelers. She is depicted either riding a wolf or wearing one's skin. She is a shapeshifter, frequently taking the form of birds or beasts in her myths, and is seen as a jealous and possessive Goddess at times, while also protecting the souls of fallen hunters and carrying them to Omeyar’s halls. Her other important role in the cosmology of Atlian myth is fighting Myrkr alongside Atyr, and to aid her she was said to wear the Crown of Invisibility and wield the mighty bow Mulagir (ˈmylɑgɪɾ̥).|
Amongst the Goddesses, Hjrna (ˈçəɾ̥na) is seen as foremost in popularity from surviving records. Described as the most beautiful of all the Goddesses, she is the Goddess of Beauty, Love, Peace, and Fertility.
As the Goddess of Nature, Growth, and the Harvest, Hælgi (ˈçəɾ̥na) interacts with mankind more often than any of the other Gods. Her frequent visits to Menskrvegr have earned her a special place in the hearts of most humans - and staunch disapproval from the more uptight and disinterested Gods.
In the beginning, there was nothing but the Void; an endless expanse of shadows where cosmic winds washed over the scattered bones and ruins of Feigrvegr (ˈfe͜iɣɾ̥vɛgɾ̥). No light, no sound, no life; just unending emptiness.
So it was, and so it remained for countless eons, until, out of the cold depths of the endless Void, a great tree, Rutwoltrigg (ˈrytvol̥tɾɪg), burst into life. Massive beyond imagination, the tree stood firm against the bitter winds; bone-smooth crimson bark twisted into a great hanging canopy covered in leaves so white that they shone blindingly in the darkness, a trunk so thick that if one stood facing it from miles and miles away you could not see where it began to curve, and roots that burst forth from the ground like great serpents; all bent to cradle and shield the glowing being that lay at the base of the tree.
Atyr was his name, the last of the Ellrikæsir (ˈɛtɬɾɪkæ͡jsiɾ̥), the Gods of Old; kept safe from the Doom that destroyed Feigrvegr and ushered in Myrkr (ˈmjiɾ̥kɾ̥); the final defiant seed of a dead civilization.
For time uncountable, Atyr learned and grew strong in the embrace of Rutwoltrigg, shielded from the stirring evil in the Void by its roots and canopy. He thrived, but he was alone, and wished to see what lay beyond the encircling roots and leaves. Ignoring the whispers from the tree, he made his way out of the cover of Light and emerged to face the Void, and the evil stirring within it. Myrkr surged from all sides and rushed at Atyr, eyes glittering with malevolence peering through the leaves while cold blades hacked at the great roots. Rutwoltrigg fought back, leaves falling and igniting against the invisible malice that haunted the darkness, passages through the roots slamming shut and crushing whatever tried to creep through. And Atyr ran on, guided by whispered words into a covered hollow where a Cloak of Leaves and a Hammer - Njrnal (ˈnɪjɾnɑl̥) - made of crimson wood lay waiting. Garbed and armed, the voices ushered Atyr away through secret tunnels and ways, even as the ground beneath his feet buckled and cracked with great footfalls of approaching Myrkr.
Atyr emerged from a final tunnel far beyond the bounds of the tree, the whispers commanding him to go, to flee and never look back. He made it only three steps before he turned back to look upon his birthplace and stood in frozen horror as claws of bone and flame reached from the Void and gripped the trunk, thick wood cracking and withering wherever Myrkr touched. Atyr cried out at the loss of his home, drawing Myrkr's gaze, but with a final act of defiance the tree shook loose the leaves of its great canopy and caught the wind, carrying Atyr aloft and far away.
Atyr wandered the Void, his only light the dim glow of his cloak, struggling to stay ahead of hungering Myrkr that constantly searched for him. Finally, after years and years of running from Myrkr and learning what he could from what had survived the Doom, Atyr stopped running and began to build. An encircling wall, each section embedded with a leaf from the cloak to give it the strength it needed to hold out against Myrkr; Heilagrvegr (ˈhe͜ilawɣɾ̥vɛgɾ̥), he called it - a sacred realm, his new home. He raised stone statues from the surrounding ruins and imbued them with a single leaf and a drop of his blood; the statues came alive, and together stood vigilant against Myrkr.
And in the center, Atyr gathered all of the material he could from the surrounding area, laid his cloak in the center of a great pit, and settled a simple anvil beside it. With a soft breath against the leaves, the pit ignited into a blaze of pure white light, and with its heat Atyr began to work the forge, which he called Aldrnari. The sparks from Njrnal striking the anvil flew far and high into the reaches of the Void where they twinkled and shined; spinning unabated through the Void and bringing light for the first time in uncountable eternity.
The bone and dust and metal and earth molded beneath his hammer strokes, globes spinning around him in concert with the clanging of Aldrnari, his sweat and breath seeping into the barren surfaceless spheres and filling them with new life.
Myrkr surged against Heilagrvegr's walls, but Atyr continued undaunted. When Myrkr came reaching out of the enlightened Void, Atyr struck the tips of Myrkr's claws from its hand and forged them into his Realms, forever enshrining the Darkness and the Light - Death and Life - into all that he wrought.
|End of Days|
The following prophecy was given by Svala, a servant of Omeyar in Mennskvegr, to declare to the inhabitants of all Five Realms what shall soon take place.
Like the Ellrikæsir in Feigrvegr before him, the reign of Atyr shall not last forever.
And with the death of Atyr, the leaves of Rutwoltrigg, which power the forge Aldrnari, shall shrivel up and dry. The forgefire will be extinguished, taking all light with it. There shall be nothing but the Void; an endless expanse of shadows where cosmic winds wash over the scattered bones and ruins of Heilagrvegr. No light, no sound, no life; just unending emptiness.