Austerain

From The Library of Parliament
Jump to: navigation, search
Austerain
Austerain Flag.jpg
11th World Assembly Delegate
In office
17 March 2017 – 23 October 2017
Preceded byMons Garle
Succeeded byCourelli
2nd Chancellor
In office
23 October 2017 – 1 January 2018
Preceded byMons Garle
Succeeded byNew Lettia
Deputy Minister of Immigration
In office
26 October 2016 – 15 March 2017
DelegateMons Garle
MinisterLawattsia
Preceded byLamatama
Succeeded byHirematia
Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
X – 23 January 2018
DelegateCourelli
MinisterGoncar
Preceded byNormandy and Picardy
Succeeded byLawattsia
Nation details
Founded16 October 2016
(3 years ago)
 (2016-10-16)

Austerain, officially the Federal Republic of Austerain (Italian: Repubblica Federale di Austerain), is a constitutional federal democratic republic in the Social Liberal Union. It is located in the south central area of the sea of SLU. The nation is comprised of five islands: mainland Austerain, Springvale, Westerhaven, Cesarmere, Roseaurain. Before the settlement of British and Italian refugees in 1737, the mainland island of Austerain was overall uninhabited, but the southern islands had natives called "Dovrians" settled in tribes. The islands of Springvale, Westerhaven, Cesarmere, and Roseaurain voted on March 17, 2017 to join the Federal Republic as autonomous provinces, which doubled the size of the National Congress, introduced the Nationalist Islanders' Party to represent islanders' interests, and doubled the land area of the country. After the four islands entered the Federal Republic, the National Congress passed a $1.5 trillion highway infrastructure bill to construct an interstate highway to connect all islands by road and bridge, a staggering length of 750 miles (adding on to the existing 1200 miles of highway from the mainland. For the first time, the highways will be constructed with durable solar panel blocks to produce energy for rural areas in the new provinces. The highway project is expected to be completed by 2021.


Austerain has been a member of the Social Liberal Union since its founding. Austerain's Ambassador to the SLU is James Dartmoor, appointed by previous Grand Chancellor Giorgio Asher (2005-February 2017). Austerain held the position of Deputy Minister of Immigration from October 2016 to March 2017, and has served as SLU's Delegate to the World Assembly since March 2017.

National Facts

Official National Name: The Federal Republic of Austerain
Grand Chancellor: Sarah Versace (Twenty-Third Grand Chancellor)
Capital: City of Austraton (Population ~5,500,000)
Population: Approximately 986,000,000

History

Founding and Becoming A Republic

The Federal Republic of Austerain was first settled in 1737 by a large group of refugees. These refugees has fled from countries with cruel monarchies with economic policies that would keep the poor under the slavery of poverty.

The leader of the group was Sir William Auster, a wealthy banker from the United Kingdom who was sympathetic to the refugees' cause in their search of a new homeland. They ended up on a large secluded island and named it Austerain after Sir William. Many of them settled in a town that would be known as Austermere (historic center of the current capital city) at the end of the northern bay of the island. Some of settlers spread to other areas of the island as far as the south tip and built roads to connect the larger settlements at the southern and northeastern tip. The settlers made great progress in the construction of Austermere with stone from a nearby discovered quarry and timber from the vast forests. They built shops, parks, homes, farms, firms, local government buildings, a postal system, and an infirmary.

Three years after settlement in the winter of 1740, the settlers decided that it was time for a new government. At the Convention of 1740, the people decided to establish a constitutional monarchy with a national legislature called the Royal Congress, made up of prominent Austerens from the five provinces of the country. The new King would be the William Auster, who was 67 years old at the time of his ascension. A great palace was built in just four years expanding from the local council hall as the seat of the monarchy and the Royal Congress (known as the Palace of Auster) out of local and imported stone and wood and adorned with the finest jewels inside. The Palace of Auster is located in the hillsides in the western districts of Austermere some distance from the Bay of Romana.

His reign was prosperous and led to enormous growth until his death in 1770. When he died, he left two sons: Prince Henri aged 55 and Prince Eric aged 40. Both of them had terrible reputations with personalities of greed, selfishness, and lust, and would take advantage of people around the country. The Royal Congress voted 3-2 against their right to the throne. Henri and Eric, frustrated by the Royal Congress' decision, assembled armies and burned down the Congress building with the Members inside.

Henri and Eric established themselves as the kings. Henri would become the King of the North where Austermere was, and Eric would become the King of the South where its largest settlement was Sundester at the southern tip. The two Kings set up their courts and became wealthy at the expense of their citizens, who became increasingly angry at their new rulers.

In the small village of Sardinia in the sunny eastern seaside Province of Hyacinth, concerned delegates from all provinces met at Sardinia's Council Hall. All of them agreed that this system of dual monarchy was not working and that the mandate of the people was more important to the benefit of the country and for the protection of the rights and liberties of the people. The rule of Henri and Eric had become similar to the monarchies from the lands that they had escaped from to take refuge here in the first place. In 1790, the delegates passed a resolution that would be known as the Austerain Constitutional Accord, modeled after the United States Constitution Bill of Rights detailing the protected rights and liberties of the people, at the Second National Convention.

The president of the convention Edward Worcester led a great army as commanding general to first crush King Henri to liberate the North. After learning about the fall of King Henri (a battle which would be known as the Battle of Henri's Fall), King Eric led his armies to stop the advance of the rebel armies toward Sundester. The two forces met at a field at the very center of the nation, a cool breeze blowing from the western mountains in the distance. Eric's forces were severely outnumbered by the rebel armies and were effectively decimated. Eric himself was slain by General Worcester himself and burned to ashes, ending the People's Revolution.

After the final defeat of the two Kings at the Battle of Eric's Ashes, the delegates met again at Austermere in the Palace of Auster in 1793, former palace of Henri and King William. In 1795, the Third Constitutional Convention passed the National Charter, which would create a new system of government modeled after the United States- a federal democratic republic. It was ratified the same year. The national legislature (known as the National Congress) was made up of three houses. The first house (the Grand Senate) would consist of three representatives for each province. The second house (House of Delegates) would consist of one representative per 200,000 people. The third house (House of Governors) would consist of the Governors of each province. Each province would have representation based on equal ground, by population, and by interests of their elected executive representatives. The executive leader of the country would be the Grand Chancellor, who was elected every five years without term limits, and served as head of state and government. General Edward Jameson Worcester was elected at age 46 as the first Grand Chancellor for 4 terms (20 years as Grand Chancellor), dying three years after his last term at age 69 in 1805.

The Austermere area was declared as the capital city and center of government in the province of Austra in the north. The city is now much larger and known as Austraton, with historic Austermere just north of the city center.

A New Country: 1793-1840

After officially becoming the nation's first Grand Chancellor in 1793, General Edward J. Worcester had to settle down and organize the country together with his Vice Chancellor Austin Cartier, a former lieutenant during the war under his command. Worcestor's first executive order was for each of the provinces to elect new representatives to the new National Congress as well as new leaders for their own provinces. By 1794, the First National Congress was elected and sworn into office.

It must be understood that in the first years of the country, there were no political parties. However, the country was split between two factions: the Royalists who were in favor of a monarchy and strong central power, and the Democratic Federalists who wanted a democratic-republic with strong provinces. Worcestor himself was a Democratic Federalist, though he was in favor of a balanced relationship between the provinces and the national government. He pushed Congress to pass the Province Acts, which established each province legally, their capital cities, their own legislatures and courts, and recognized executive heads known as Governors who had their own House in the National Congress (something Worcestor himself pushed for at the 1795 Third Constitutional Convention in the National Constitutional Charter).

When Worcestor resigned in 1802 to retire as a plantation owner, Mr. Cartier took over as Interim Chancellor until the 1805 General Election. During Cartier's term, he grew the size of the national government by creating Austerain's first organized national military as Commander-In-Chief, which was used to crush a farmer's rebellion near Sardinia. Former Grand Chancellor Worcestor's plantation Drummore Hill was burned during the 1805 Farmer's Uprising before the Election, and he died attempting to defend his estate and family.

In the General Election, the country was surprised when Mrs. Jane Antoina de Simonetta was elected as the country's first female Grand Chancellor, the wife of Grand Senator Jonathan de Simonetta. She was ahead of her time. During her administration, she expanded voting liberties to the poor, especially poor women by ordering the abolition of poll taxes. She served for 10 years, and oversaw massive agricultural economic growth. To appease farmers around the country after the uprisings, she invested government revenue into produce subsidies while lowering the land taxes by 2%.

After de Simonetta's administration to 1830, the economy of Austerain continued to grow substantially. This Era of Milk and Honey was interrupted when a foreign country called Bigtopia invaded the country's mountainous western shores and began their narch towards the capital Austermere, burning entire villages and farms along the way. Alarmed by this surprise attack, Grand Chancellor Henry Greywell assembled a navy by seizing ships and arms to attack the enemy's naval forces off the western coast. Greywell then ordered for the infantry to mobilize outside of the capital city at a valley known as the Red Plain before the Bigtopian armies could reach it. In 1838, the two forces met in battle on the field in a decisive victory for Austerain that would be known as the Battle of the Red Plain. Greywell himself led the Austeren forces into battle, and beheaded the Commanding General of the Bigtopian invaders in front of the Palace of Auster.

Wary of other foreign entities, he pushed Congress to pass a law that would restrict any form of diplomacy, travel, or trade with other nations in the National Security Assurance Act of 1839. He issued an executive order to build the country's naval fleets to patrol the waters around the island nation. Greywell's administration began the isolationist policy of Austerain, under which the country remained independent and completely cut off from the rest of the world.

Age of Instability and Prosperity: 1793-1840

After the passage of the National Security Assurance Act of 1839 under the Greywell Administration, trade with other nations ceased. The nation's economic output decreased as exports to other nations dropped and foreign companies pulled their business out of the country, triggering an economic depression, the first economic downtown since the People's Revolution against the brother kings. This economic downtown continued into Grand Chancellor Jackson Hall's term from 1840 to 1845. Chancellor Hall considered the downturn as a temporary setback from the lack of trade. Thinking that he could accelerate the leveling out in his first year, he cut taxes and repealed environmental, labor, and financial regulations to "allow the free market run its course".

Image

By 1845, the wages of the middle class plummeted as the salaries of the wealthy executives and the bankers increased. Unions were busted as they no longer had enough bargaining power to demand higher wages and benefits. With the middle class not spending enough back into the economy, many businesses could not sustain themselves and failed. As more businesses were forced to close down due to less business and tough competition from olipolized competitors, unemployment soared to 42%. The Hall Administration continued to make cuts to social programs, which deprived people from a social safety net. Factories began polluting the rivers of Austerain, including the mighty Tiberus River (longest river in the nation), which polluted some of the watersheds of drinking water. People became very ill from waterborne diseases from the water in their wells.

When Chancellor Hall ran for re-election in the 1845 General Election, he lost his bid to the Social Democratic Party candidate Antony Chauncey, the Governor of Romana prior to his election, with 83% of the popular vote and 76 out of 90 Electoral Votes.

During the Chauncey Administration from 1845 to 1855, his government repealed parts of the 1839 Act by allowing some trade to other nations and allowed people to to travel to other nations, restored regulations on the environment and funded massive cleanup projects that employed thousands, invested funding for a national infrastructure program that employed hundreds of thousands, introduced a Social Security program, required a livable minimum wage, broke up trusts and monopolies, and gave temporary grants and loans to people to create their own businesses to create jobs, strengthened the bargaining power of unions and workers, and created re-employment programs. With more economic output and exporting manufactered goods to foreign war efforts, this began the Forty Year Prosperity from 1848 to 1888. Unemployment dropped from the 1845 peak of 42% to the record rate of 7% by 1881. The median income wage increased, which increased the spending power of the middle class- which boosted the economy. The government ran a massive hundred million dollar budget deficit for its programs, but was able to recover into a budget surplus of $82 million in 1860 by increasing taxes gradually as wages increased proportionally, making taxes on the wealthy higher in proportion to their salaries and on capital gains.

The Forty Year Prosperity lasted through the Green Chancellorships of Nancy Sanders (1955-1865) and Anderson Lourde (1865-1880), and part of the Chancellorship of Progressive Conservative Deborah Lautner (1880-1890).

Formerly a popular and well-respected statesman, Grand Chancellor Lourde mired his administration in controversy after he used part of the budget deficit to fund a massive project for a palace as his summer residence in the Andorian Mountain Range by the western coast. The independent watchdog agency Federal Oversight Commission pushed members of Congress (ruled by the Greens) to begin impeachment proceedings on charges of corruption, but they refused. When Lourde and the Greens ran for re-election in the 1880 General Election, he lost his bid and the Greens lost their majority to the Progressive Conservatives.

His successor Grand Chancellor Deborah Lautner enjoyed the fruits of the Prosperity during his first term and first three years of her second term. During her term however, she forced trade tariffs on what little imports came into the country and other countries did the same to Austerain's exports. The economy began to stagnate once again and wages dropped. Despite this, Grand Chancellor Lautner and her party remained moderately popular in the country to continue the Progressive Conservatives' rule into the 1890 General Election (though their majority in Congress decreased in 1895) due to their environmental protection policies and close ties to big business, so former Vice Chancellor Elizabeth Cooper was elected as the 12th Grand Chancellor from 1890 to 1902.

Grand Chancellor Cooper's Administration increased tariffs and began to deregulate many industries, and even allowed union busting. When the Progressive Conservatives lost their majority in the 1900 General Election as Cooper was re-elected by slim margins, the FOC released a shocking report that the Progressive Conservatives had been funding wars abroad with funds that were undocumented in the public budget. The National Congress voted to impeach Elizabeth Cooper and her entire Cabinet from office, and the Recall Referendum passed the Articles of Impeachment with 70% of the vote. With the Vice Chancellor and all subsequent Cabinet members removed, the Conservative Royalist-held Congress appointed Andrew Anduran as the Interim Chancellor.

Grand Chancellor Anduran (1902-1920) blamed foreign intervention on the causes of corruption, and the people began to mistrust government as the source of their latest economic woes. His administration gradually repealed regulations and re-instituted the National Security Assurance Act to restrict trade to avoid tariffs, thinking that the nation was finally strong enough to be independent. The moralistic Grand Chancellor remained popular until 1916 when the Austraton Stock Exchange crashed and unemployment reached 25%, triggering a Second Depression. His party lost majority in Congress and he lost his fourth re-election bid in the 1920 General Election to Progressive Conservative candidate Nadim-Muhammad Yusef.

Grand Chancellor Nadim-Muhammad Yusef (1920-1930) reinstated many of the regulations to protect workers and small businesses and repealed parts of the 1939 Act, while eliminating tariffs. He is regarded as one of the most liberal Progressive Conservative chancellors. He began to shift the Progressive Conservatives more to the left economically and on social issues, preaching religious tolerance (he himself was Muslim). In the 1930 General Election, as Chancellor Yusef declined to run for re-election, his Secretary of Defense George Oskar ran as the Progressive Conservative candidate and won.

Grand Chancellor George Oskar's tenure (1930-1945) began recovery, but economic recovery was slow as wages continued to stagnate. The Liberal Party took majority rule in Congress in 1942 as they criticized the Oskar Administration for being too close to big business and not doing enough to help the middle class. After Oskar ran and lost re-election in the 1945 General Election, Liberal Party (successor to the Social Democratic Party) candidate Henry Asquith became the 16th Grand Chancellor from 1945 to 1955.

The Asquith Administration accelerated recovery by increasing spending on social programs and protected the bargaining power of workers by protecting unions once again. Unemployment dropped once again to 9.2% and median wages increased. The economy was experiencing exponential growth once again.

Politics

Government

tbe